- Blair Athol
- Bow Bowing
- Carnes Hill
- Cecil Park
- Chipping Norton
- Eagle Vale
- Eschol Park
- Glen Alpine
- Hoxton Park
- Macquarie Fields
- Macquarie Links
- Warwick Farm
- Wattle Grove
- West Hoxton
With tongue-twisting titles like Grimwig Crescent, Pickwick Way and Crispsparkle Drive, most people wouldn't have 'a dickens of a chance' at guessing how Ambarvale got its street names.
Well, by Dickens, that’s the answer! They nearly all recall characters from the novels of famous nineteenth century author Charles Dickens. When the first plans to develop the suburb were drawn up in 1973, a contest was held among the staff of Lend Lease Corporation to come up with a street theme suggestion.
Amid a crop of weird and wonderful ideas, it was long time employee, Joy Jarvis, who dreamt up the policy of using characters from fictions as famous as Oliver Twist, Tale of two Cities and A Christmas Carol. Campbelltown Council backed the suggestion, and by the mid 1970s the first homes and roads were underway.
The suburb itself was named after the old Ambarvale farm which despite popular belief, actually stood on the other side of Appin Road where the suburb of St Helens Park is now. Still, as Ambarvale was one of the oldest property names to be used south of Campbelltown, the council decided to apply to use the name and the Geographical Names Board approved it in 1976.
Ambarvale was the land granted to former convict, Samuel Larken. An artist working in the Covent Garden area of London, he was convicted of stealing jewellery, clothing and some silverware from a St Pancras boarding house and transported to New South Wales on the Minorca in 1801. As an educated man he was immediately put to work for the colonial administration and within two years had won his conditional pardon, followed by an absolute pardon three years later.
He held various posts within the administration before being appointed Government Storekeeper at Parramatta in 1813. In 1816, Larken and his de facto father-in-law, John Wild, received adjoining land grants, the second property being named Egypt Farm.
Portions of both grants were later incorporated into the famous St Helens Park property. A spread of small wheat farms dominated the rolling hills that are now known as Ambarvale. But these were replaced by dairies after rust disease ruined the crops in the 1860s.
One of the better-known properties was Glen Lora dairy farm, which was owned in the 1800s by the Fieldhouse clan. Frederick Munro was the owner of the farm early this century. Glen Lora stood near the modern route of Woodhouse Drive.
Built in the 1970s, this thoroughfare was named after another family that had help pioneer the southern frontier of Campbelltown. George Woodhouse had been given a land grant off Appin Road in 1823.
It was March 1972, that the state government had first released the paddocks for urban development and, by the end of 1975, the first homes were under construction. Lend Lease declared the $180 million estate to be 'one of the largest' continuous residential projects ever undertaken in Australia' and it was officially opened by a newly-elected NSW Premier Neville Wran, in June 1976.
In the following years, the suburb spread southward, using the street title theme approved three years earlier. Dickens Road recognises the great novelist himself, while Copperfield Drive pays a due to one of his best known books, David Copperfield. A glance at any street directory will show the full catalogue of names.
But a brief selection would include Barnaby Place, after the novel Barnaby Rudge, Boythorn and Jarndyce Bleak House, and Miss Havisham, Estella, Jaggers, and Joe Gargery from Great Expectations. Nickelby Way comes from Nicholas Nickelby, as does Lillyvicks Crescent, Squeers Place, Cheeryble Place, and Mantalini Street.
Lend Lease obviously ruled out using some less euphonious Dickens character names, such as Mr Snawley, Sir Tumley Sniffim and Uncle Pumblechook.
Wran had praised Lend Lease for 'bullocking' through the economic downturn, but his optimism was short-lived. By the late 1970s, Lend Lease had dropped its plans to create 'the largest continual residential project', and sold remaining sections of its estate to Landcom and a private firm which later sold its holdings to the NSW Housing Commission.
A major attraction to many early home buyers was a large 'ornamental lake', created to disguise the 'ugly appearance' of a shale quarry which had stood off Woodhouse Drive. But it soon sparked debate as to whether it was a true benefit for residents and scenic haven for wildlife or, as the critics suggested, a 'drowning pool' for children. In 1981, Council decided to fill it in and convert itin and convert it into Fieldhouse Park - named after the early family.
Nulla Reserve is Aboriginal for ' camp', while Mundurama Reserve, was named after the pioneer farmer who was one of the first landowners in the district. His is the first burial recorded at St Johns Catholic Cemetery. Thomas Acres Public School also notes his role.
Ambarvale Public School had been built in 1977-78 and Thomas Reddall High School was opened in April 1992. Its name was chosen at a public meeting to honour Reverend Thomas Reddall, who had founded some of the earliest schools in Campbelltown.
By the 1990s, the only major section of Ambarvale left to undeveloped was the hilltop near Macarthur Square. And by 1995, this new estate was being marketed and sold.
The main thoroughfare, which forms the suburb border with Glen Alpine, is Englorie Park Drive. This name comes from the historic homestead which still stands nearby - although it is misspelt. Early owner Charles Burcher, had actually called it Euglorie Park, although the incorrect version is more widely used.
It should also be pointed out that when the house was first built in 1880 by Alfred Leith Park, it was called Parkholme - hence Parkholme Circuit.
The above suburb profile has been reproduced from the web site of the Campbelltown City Council (www.campbelltown.nsw.gov.au) which acknowledges the original source document as "Campbelltown's Streets and Suburbs - How and why they got their names" written by Jeff McGill, Verlie Fowler and Keith Richardson, 1995, published by Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society
Ashcroft is an established residential area. Ashcroft is bounded by Mannix Park and Reservoir Road in the north, Cabramatta Creek in the east and south and Sadleir Avenue in the west. Ashcroft is named after Edward Ashcroft, an early landholder. Ashcroft includes the Liverpool City part of the suburb of Mount Pritchard.
Development of the area dates primarily from the 1960s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined slightly since the 1990s, a result of little change in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Blamfield Park, Landa Park, Elouera Bushland Reserve and two schools.
Austral is a rural and township area. Austral is bounded by a line consisting mainly of the transmission line in the north, the Sydney Water Supply Channel in the east, Bringelly Road in the south and Kemps Creek in the west.
Settlement of the area dates from 1818, with land used mainly for farming. In the late 1920s a soldier settlement scheme was set up, but was unsuccessful due to the Depression. The most significant development occurred during the post-war years. The area has remained one of small farms, with the only urban subdivision being in the township of Austral. The population and dwelling stock have been relatively stable since the mid 1990s.
Major features of the area include Craik Park and one school.
If you had peered out to the west of Campbelltown from a high city centre window in mid-1995, you may have been forgiven for thinking you were in the middle of the country. The rolling hills sprinkled with Morton Bay figs and tall bunya pines, Victorian homes and farm life, would make the perfect oil painting.
But not for long. Work had already started on filling these hills with houses, roads and all the things which make a new community. In fact, Blair Athol is being promoted as "Campbelltown's newest suburb". Three historic homes - Blair Athol, Stone Cottage and The Kraal - will hold their ground, but the land below is to be a modern residential estate.
The irony is that Blair Athol was never intended to become a suburb in the first place. The site was actually set aside decades ago as prime industrial territory.
Blair Athol has a healthy dose of tartan in its background. After all, it was an emigrant Scot, John Kidd, who built the fine old home on the hill about 1879. He had named it after a small township in his native land. John Kidd is probably better known to students of local history as the Honourable John Kidd, MLA, who for several terms between 1880 and 1904 was Campbelltown's Member of Parliament. As well as being a town baker, storekeeper and dairy farmer, Kidd was a high profile member of the Presbyterian congregation. He was also a president of the town's agricultural society, one-time owner of the Campbelltown Herald, and a vocal lobbyist for bridges, roads and public building.
Some years after Federation in 1901, one of Kidd's daughters Mary, left for a holiday in South Africa. Here, she met and fell in love with a senior public servant - a Scot called William Harvey Brown. With Kidd's blessing, they were married in Australia in 1905, but returned to live in the South African port of Durban.
In 1908 they arrived back in Sydney and decided to live in Campbelltown. They made their home in a small wooden cottage slightly to the east of Blair Athol homestead, and named it The Kraal. This is the South African word for a group of huts or an enclosure for cattle and sheep. A workman's hut to the south was called the Stone cottage.
After the death of John Kidd in 1919, the Harvey-Browns moved into Blair Athol and The Kraal was let out to Thomas and Ida Boardman. These were heydays times, with the grand old home the scene of many a dance or party. William Harvey-Brown died in 1928 and Mary in 1936. So following the tradition set in the past, the Boardmans moved out of their cottage and into the big house. Their 365-acre (146ha) farm, separated from town by the railway line, was used to fatten cattle and rear dairy heifers.
In 1945, Blair Athol and its surround were sold to the electrical engineering firm Crompton Parkinson. And on this land, close to the railway, it built the first major factory at Campbelltown in 1957. Council was delighted, and made the entire section west of the line as industrial area. But for years the bulk of the Blair Athol hilly land behind sat vacant, as factories were concentrated off Badgally and Blaxland Roads, and eventually other industrial zones at Minto and Ingleburn.
One major development that did arrive in 1977 was a $4.5 million Johnson and Johnson baby product factory. More than 300 people were employed and a grateful Council named the new road to the site in its honour - Johnson Road. But at the beginning of the 1990's, the Johnson and Johnson plant closed its doors, to centre its operations in Botany. The surrounding industrial lots remained empty as well and this obvious lack of demand for factory sites - and a restructure of the Crompton Parkinson company - led to a request for rezoning of much of the land to "residential".
In June 1992, the Council agreed to this rezoning, which in turn, opened the door for developers to plan homesites. The whole situation met the ire of the Chamber of Commerce and some aldermen who argued the land could still provide industrial employment in the future. But others insisted the site was ideal for suburbia, being close to transport and business.
Once approved, the new suburb was officially bounded by the Hume Highway, Narellan Road and the Franciscan Novitiate, Blaxland Road and Badgally Road. Discussions with Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society highlighted the need for the Council to "maintain the natural ridgeline" of the Blair Athol site, "as well as the connection between three main homes in group". It was planned that the hilltop would be kept generally free of new homes and would be heavily landscaped.
Meanwhile, the old homestead itself was carefully restored by Mick Scrase and Lucas and Tait. Some streets were named in honour of the Blair Athol group of buildings. A major circuit road is The Kraal Drive, while other roads include Blair Athol Drive and Stone Cottage Place.
But the major theme chosen for street names became historic buildings and sites in Campbelltown that have been demolished or destroyed. This effort to preserve names that would otherwise be lost has created streets such as Keighran Mill. Mossberry, Pittman Steps, the Tannery, Scarr Cottage, Kuhn and the Ark. Even two of Campbelltown's most fondly remembered pubs (demolished in the 1980's) were proposed as street names - Lacks Hotel and The Royal Hotel.
A spur road along the electricity transmission easement adjoining the Franciscan Friary or the Poor Clare Nuns Monastery became Maryfields Drive. This recalls the early farm property on the site which was owned by the Rudd family. The Rudd descendent, Miss Sarah Keane, donated Maryfields to the Franciscan order in the 1930's. Council then decided to name a number of streets in this area of Blair Athol after saints. "This would be appropriate as the site adjoins land on which the Franciscans began the ceremony of Via Crucius in 1936, when 6000 people attended by special trains," the 1994 Council report suggested. This "Way of the Cross" pilgrimage was unique in Australia and has been repeated every year. Some of the street names include St Catherine, St Gabriel, St Jerome, St Maria, St Monica, St Paul, St Peter and St Simon.
The above suburb profile has been reproduced from the web site of the Campbelltown City Council (www.campbelltown.nsw.gov.au) which acknowledges the original source document as "Campbelltown's Streets and Suburbs - How and why they got their names" written by Jeff McGill, Verlie Fowler and Keith Richardson, 1995, published by Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society
Blairmount, unlike other local suburbs, doesn't have streets named after romantic poets, famous women, noble explorers or early pioneers. Its roadways have a much more four-legged and equine flavour - because they pay tribute to... horses.
Not that you'll find a Mr Ed Avenue or a Phar Lap Place anywhere.
Blairmount's streets actually recall great horse breeds, in recognition of a fine stud that stood on the hilly site earlier this century.
There is not a huge deal of information available on the history of the old Blairmount property, but we do know the farm homestead was built in the late Victorian era. And the building still exists, standing on scenic protection land below St Gregory's college, with sweeping views of Campbelltown.
Owners earlier this century were Clive and Victor Ducat, the latter serving as a local alderman. They were grandsons of a Scottish migrant, William Ducat (pronounced Duck-at).
But the Badgally Road property and homestead wasn't known as Blairmount in these early decades of the century. It was actually Belmont.
Leslie Rouse acquired the property in 1923, but the Ducats held onto some land in the area occupied by the present suburb until 1929. In that year the two brothers sold out to Charles McClelland of the adjacent Glenroy farm (see Claymore). Meanwhile Rouse developed his newly-acquired home as a horse stud, employing Clive Ducat as his manager.
A little known fact is the role the Ducats played in ridding Campbelltown of one of its worst ever plagues - prickly pear. In the early part of the century, hundreds of good farm acres were being destroyed by the ugly pest, which had gone berserk across NSW and Queensland. Chopping it down and burning it only seemed to drive the frenzy of growth.
A big reason for its success was the fact it had no natural enemies. Yet the unlikely saviours were tiny insects from South America - Cactoblastis Cactorum - which lived on the cactus and were introduced in 1925. But many farmers scoffed at suggestions an insect could help and refused to consider it. In June 1926, the Campbelltown News reported Vic Ducat had taken up the challenge.
"Unfortunately for Mr V A Ducat, his farm off Badgally Road, contains no small amount of prickly pear", reported the press "and although he used many methods to diminish its growth, fresh segments of the destructive pest put in an appearance." So ignoring the ridicule and claims the insects were "useless", Ducat contacted the authorities.
Soon, the front page of the News was hailing his efforts as "a huge success at little cost". It reported: "It is not 18 months since Mr Ducat procured a small supply of Cochineal insects and placed them on a few plants in the thickly-infected pear area, and today the results are conspicuous. This patch is now dying, and the insects have traversed 60 to 100 yards in every direction." Before long, other local farmers were following his lead.
After Rouse's death in 1928, Frank Young, manager of the Commonwealth Wool Company, purchased the property, which at the time totalled 175 acres (70ha). By now, it was known as Blairmount. "Blair" is Scottish word meaning "cleared space".
Young increased the size of his holding by purchasing adjoining land and specialised in breeding prize-winning Clydesdale horses until his death in 1951. These heavy draught horses, originally bred near the River Clyde in Scotland, are today honoured by the modern suburb's main road - Clydesdale Drive.
Developed with housing in the 1980's, the nearby hills had been transformed into a small neighbourhood named after the Blairmount farm. Yet in its earliest years it was often misspelt as "Blairmont".
Blairmount Public School was opened in 1983, but had been operating in nearby Claymore as Badgally School since 1978.
The potential for further urban expansion of the suburb is limited, as it is hemmed in by the protected Scenic Hills zone to the west and south, by the Hume Highway to the east, and by Claymore to the north.
In August 1980, Campbelltown Council approved the notion of naming streets in Blairmount after famous horse breeds.
Those now noted include the British breeds, the Shetland pony and the Exmoor. Nearby Jaf Place pay tribute to a Persian breed, while the main loop road, Appaloosa Circuit, recalls the renowned American horse.
A special mention should go to Waler Place, named after Australia's own equine. It was mainly bred in New South Wales (hence its name) as a hardy army mount for British forces serving in India during the 19th Century. This same breed carried the famous Australian Light Horse battalions across the deserts of the Middle East in World War One, winning wide respect for their endurance.
In case the suburb does eventually expand south into the hollow beside the Hume Highway, Council has already approved street names.
These are Calabrese Street (Italian), Barn Place (Algerian), Pencheron Street (French), and Dales Close (English).
Thomas Burke Reserve, off Badgally Road, is named after the man who originally farmed the 100-acre (40ha) grant on the site.
The above suburb profile has been reproduced from the web site of the Campbelltown City Council (www.campbelltown.nsw.gov.au) which acknowledges the original source document as "Campbelltown's Streets and Suburbs - How and why they got their names" written by Jeff McGill, Verlie Fowler and Keith Richardson, 1995, published by Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society
How would you like to live in a suburb called "Saggart Field"? An ear-pleasing title it is not! But it was the name originally proposed for Bow Bowing.
Campbelltown Council chose it back in 1975 when plans for the suburb were first being placed on the drawing board. "Saggart Field" was designed to honour a small community of farmers that had lived on the site in the mid-19th Century.
This community - established long before nearby Minto - was known by its name because the Saggart family lived in a large red wooden house on the top of a hill overlooking the area.
But as a suggested suburb name, it was met only by looks of horror from residents and aldermen. Noting the protests, Council decided instead to use the name "Bow Bowing", in recognition of the Creek which flowed past the site.
Parish maps show the earliest landholders in the area were Joseph Inch, D. Keighran and John Pendergast. It was the Pendergast family that donated a block of land on the corner of Campbelltown Road and Redfern Road to the Catholic Church. In June 1866 a small church classroom - built by local farmers - was opened at the site and called Saggart Field School.
But a lack of funding made conditions very spartan and the first teacher, Nanno Clark, lived in virtual poverty. Moves to improve this situation were made by converting the church school into a public one. And despite the opposition of some Catholic families in the area, parish priest John Paul Roche supported the tactic and it succeeded.
So in 1867, the little wooden hut became the first public school in Campbelltown. A visiting inspector described Saggart Field as "a small agricultural settlement" - but the local name did not benefit from great longevity. Particularly as the Saggart family had moved away from the district.
By May 1884, the school had changed its name to Minto Public School, and in 1954 it was relocated to the more populated eastern side of the railway line, where it still stands on the corner of Redfern and Pembroke Roads. Students and teachers are very proud of their school's rich heritage and maintain a little museum.
Today, the only visual reminder of the old settlement name is Saggart Field Road in the Minto industrial area.
By naming the planned suburb "Bow Bowing" in 1975, Council was paying tribute to one of its city's best-known waterways. Although its original course has changed greatly since the 1970s with the construction of wide concrete canals.
In July 1990, Premier Nick Greiner officially opened Bow Bowing Estate, established by Long Homes and planned to incorporate 350 homes - far fewer than the 1055 planned by the Commission.
Council had decided as early as 1976 to name streets in the planned suburb after people involved in the wheat industry. But in June 1989, the estate developers lobbied Council to adopt a different theme. As the housing development was being marketed as Bow Bowing Park, Long Homes requested streets be called after famous parks around the world.
The list it submitted included England's Kensington Gardens and Birkenhead Park, Central Park and Yellowstone Park in the United States, and the Tivoli Gardens in Denmark. Also Russia's Gorky Park, Japan's Sankei Gardens and Spain's Campo Del Moro.
However, while the aldermen agreed to a "park" theme, they rejected the international idea. Instead, a list of Australian parks was compiled. By 1995, most of the estate was complete. And many of the streets noted NSW reserves including Kosciusko National Park (NP), Warrumbungle NP, Dorrigo State Park, Ku-ring-gai Chase NP, Kinchega NP, Angourie NP and Nadgee NP.
Queensland national parks are noted by Carnarvon Road and Jowarra Place, while those in South Australia are recalled by Belair Street and Kyeema Place.
Also noted is Wyperfeld NP in Victoria and Lyell Highway Reserve in Tasmania. National Parks in Western Australia include Nambung, Hamersley Range, Kalbarri and Tathra.
The Northern Territory is not forgotten either, with its Cobourg Peninsula Sanctuary, Tanami Desert Sanctuary and Woolwong Sanctuary.
Although the proposal to use international park names was scrapped, the estate developers did make a special request to utilise the title of New York's famous patch of green. Council agreed. And hence, the main road through the suburb is now called Central Park Drive.
The suburb of Bradbury is named after one of Campbelltown's most prominent pioneers - and one of its most colourful drunks.
William Bradbury owned a sweeping farm south of the town, and was notorious for his drinking bouts. Local historian, Dr Carol Liston, has suggested the innkeeper was drunk more often than not. She wrote: "the magistrates refused to prosecute when Bradbury's watch was stolen because it was a regular town sport to bet on how long it would take Bradbury to sober up and discover his watch was missing."
But in the rum-soaked colony that was NSW, Bradbury's exploits did little to harm his considerable reputation.
During his last visit to the area in 1822, Governor Lachlan Macquarie wrote: "Mr Bradbury is now building a very good two-storey brick house on his own farm, and on a very pretty eminence immediately adjoining Campbell-Town...". Asked to give a name to the property, Macquarie portrayed a delightful lack of imagination by calling it Bradbury Park.
When the old innkeeper died at the age of 67 in 1836, his large estate of 300 acres passed on to other owners until a section of it was subdivided into small farm blocks and town allotments in October 1844.
But until the 1950's, the hills of the modern suburb remained cow paddocks. Half a dozen farms were scattered across the slopes, one of the more prominent being that owned by Jeremiah Quirk. (A park situated on a portion of his old property has been called Quirk Reserve.)
Another prominent property was Raith, built by the Merewhether family in 1903. This was later owned by the Plaskitt family who erected an adjoining home called Lark Hill. These were purchased by the Child Welfare Department in 1964 as homes for young wards of the State.
But the major land holding remained Bradbury Park, and from the 1890's until his death in 1928, the owner of the old house was Alderman James Quilty. On passing, the local newspaper described the estate as "one of the finest properties in the Campbelltown district".
The first suburban development came with the famous St Elmo Estates of the mid-1950's. But at the time, Bradbury suburb did not exist, so the new streets were all part of Campbelltown. A modern boundary has since been set along Bradbury Avenue (named after the innkeeper himself) and Hoddle Avenue, which recalls Robert Hoddle, the surveyor who first mapped Campbelltown in 1827.
Of six St Elmo streets which now sit on the Bradbury side of the border, two payed tribute to men involved in the estate's creation. Lewis Street honoured the surveyor, Wal Lewis, while architect, James Donaldson, is remembered by Donaldson Street.
Other thoroughfares recalled grantees who originally held land included in Bradbury Park - (Joseph) Phelps Crescent and (James) Bland Street. It's thought Chisholm Street was named after James Chisholm (1806-88), owner of Gledswood, near Camden. James Bocking, the mayor of Campbelltown from 1890-91, is remembered by Bocking Avenue.
But as the first homes began to appear, a major link with the past was lost forever. In 1956, William Bradbury's 134-year-old home was demolished. Asher Place now stands in its place - ironically on the Campbelltown side of the boundary.
The green hills south of Hoddle avenue were earmarked to become another St Elmo estate, but in 1959 they were sold to the Lend Lease Corporation and renamed Macquarie Heights and Macquarie Views Estate. The first homes were approved by Council in August 1960, and as a street name theme, Lend Lease chose prominent figures from Australia's colonial past.
The early naturalists were honoured by (George) Caley Street and (William) Lewin Crescent. Gipps Street noted Sir George Gipps, Governor of NSW from 1838-45, while Macleay Street was a tribute to early colonial secretary, Alexander Macleay, who owned Brownlow Hill near Camden. Two famous emancipists were also immortalised with (Henry) Kable Road and (Mary) Reiby Place.
Local parish maps were studied, revealing land grantees such as (Ruben) Uther Avenue, (William) Guise Road, (George) Taber Place, and (Joshua) Alliot Street. Campbellfield Avenue was named to preserve the title of William Redfern's property at Minto, while Bow Bowing Crescent recalls the creek.
The road skirting Macquarie Heights Estate was named St John's Road after the St Johns Preparatory Boarding College, which stood nearby and in 1970 became St Patrick's College.
Buoyed by its successes, Lend Lease planned a huge subdivision nearby. The Cambelltown Ingleburn News of January 28, 1964, gave the first reports of the 270-acre development in "South Campbelltown".
The frontier nature of this new estate was highlighted in the hot February of 1965, when a grass fire swept through the first homes under contruction, and even threatened homes in Chisholm Crescent.
March 1965, saw the opening of the new estate, with Mayor Clive Tregear planting the first tree. Called Sherwood Hills, it became the most famous of all Campbelltown's estates and brought a "new style of living" to the area. Sherwood Hills was promoted as a "modern residential development" surrounded by parkland. Also featured was underground electricity, elimination of front and paling fences, and a ban on any red tiled roofs. Gardening was encouraged by Lend Lease.
With this in mind, the earlier streets were named for "green" images, such as Lawn Avenue, Fern Avenue, Poplar Crescent, Evergreen Avenue and Pine Avenue. The Estate's major arterial road, running along side Fishers Ghost Creek, was named simply The Parkway.
Until October 1965, the large stretch of parkland between Bradbury Avenue and the new estate had been known as the Fishers Ghost Creek Reserve. But in that month Alderman Arch Walker proposed it be renamed Bradbury Park, in honour of the early landholder.
This title was approved by Council, but it soon sparked "disappointment" among some residents who feared the name of the town's ghoul would be lost. So Alderman Walker backed moves to call the creek reserve running across the new estate area Fisher's Ghost Reserve.
Some of Sherwood Hills' earliest home buyers were stunned to find cows eating turf they had laid in their front yards. But the march of suburbia was soon supreme and within three years, more than 350 homes had been finished.
In November 1967, Stage 2 was opened by Local Government Minister P.H. Morton, who planted an acorn from Sherwood Forest in England.
Street names continued under the "green" theme, some of these being Jacaranda Avenue, Blackbutt Avenue, Bottlebrush Avenue, Jarrah Crescent, and Coachwood Crescent.
In March 1967, after years of hope and months of construction delays due to wet weather, Campbelltown Swimming Centre was opened in "Bradbury Park". It was the climax of a campaign which stretched back years.
A "vital young suburb where young marrieds meet!" This is how Lend Lease was promoting Sherwood Hills in 1968. But this constant use of the estate name for a proper suburb title, led the Council to decide on a formal appellation. But what?
William Bradbury was at the time attracting a lot of attention. In July 1968, the P&C of the new school pointed out the facility was still unnamed and stated: "In nearly all cases everyone hopes (the school title) will be Bradbury." They got their wish and two months later, Council suggested the name for the entire suburb.
A barrage of complaints followed. Residents had used the Sherwood Hills title for years now, and thought it was far more euphonious than Bradbury. But Council argued the area planned to be included in the suburb covered a much larger area than just Sherwood Hills . It argued that householders of the Macquarie Heights estate may not welcome that name. Council also wanted an address with historical significance. In March 1969, the Geographical Names Board made it official.
Despite the new suburb name, Lend Lease continued to promote its estate by the popular old name. Stage three, south of St Johns Road, was advertised in 1972 as "Sherwood Hills...the garden estate that has everything".
But the handy stockpile of leafy street names was running low, so a new theme was chosen - Aboriginal words.
The first street named was Dewrang Avenue, the Koori description for "a high or lofty place". Quite apt, as this was the highest point of the new estate area. The first homes were exhibited as the "executive type" which would typify the subdivision.
Another 35 Streets would eventually be named under the Aboriginal theme. Meanings varied from Bimbadeen (good view), Weemalah (big frost), and Adina (good) to Dandar (pretty), Anembo (quiet place) and Tandara (camp here).
In the meantime, controversy had broken out over 27 villa units proposed by Lend Lease for a site between the Parkway and Greenoaks Avenue. Residents raised a hostile petition of 480 signatures and said they had not been told this type of development was planned. But Lend Lease claimed the "the town house trend" was not envisaged when the estate was started in 1965. After months of debate, Lockesley Mews, was opened in November 1971. Its name can be traced to the "Olde English" image inspired by Sherwood. Robin Hood's real name was reputedly Robin of Lockesley.
The mews sold quickly and Lend Lease soon drew up plans for 23 more "courtyard houses", naming the development Farley Green. This recalled John Farley, reportedly the first man to see Fisher's Ghost.
May 1973 saw construction begin on the largest town house development yet - 116 group homes on a 14-acre block next to the school. It was planned as an experiment in Torrens Title medium density housing, with several blocks dissected by narrow laneways. An "English village" atmosphere was aimed for, enhanced by quaint named such as Airdsley Lane, Park Lane, Polworth Place, Timberlea Close and Green Lane. In August 1974, the entire town house estate was judged best in NSW.
November 1971 saw the release of Housing Commission plans for Bradbury, with more than 270 new homes to be erected off St Johns Road. Today, this area is sometimes incorrectly referred to as part of Airds. In an attempt to make assimilation with the surrounding neighbourhood easier, the estate adopted the same street theme used in the former Macquarie Heights area.
So the old parish maps were studied again, and a list of early landowners compiled. The results were (John) Docharty Road, (George) Carr Place, (Nicholas) Creigan Road, (William) Croft Place, and (John) Summers Way. Others were (Dudley) Hartigan Way, (David) Nowland Way, (H.P.L) Cardew Way, and (Bernard) Byrne Way.
Nearby Baden-Powell Reserve honoured the founder of the scouting movement, due to its proximity to a small scout hall opened in December 1967.
Work was started on Bradbury Shopping Centre in June 1969, laying the foundation for a community centre between The Parkway and Jacaranda Avenue. The shops were extended in 1975.
Other facilities included the kindergarten, opened in January 1971, the Bradbury Inn tavern (March 1972) and a new health centre (October 1974).
By the mid-1970's, almost all of the modern suburb had been developed. All, that is except for the open paddocks that still remained near Campbelltown Swimming Pool. So in 1975, Lend Lease returned to the area from which it launched Sherwood Hills a decade earlier. Olympic Court recognised the adjacent pool, while Ash Place, Bloodwood Place, Brushbox Place, Stringybark Place and Wandoo Place returned to the "green" theme of surrounding roads.
Apex Park, named after the service group that had created it, was opened in June 1971.
Since the 1970's, Bradbury has greatly enhanced its image as Campbelltown's "garden suburb". Popular with householders and real estate agents alike.
In 1993, the Macarthur Advertiser attempted to show the passing of the years by taking former mayor, Clive Tregear, to the site of that very first tree he planted in 1965. "Are you sure this is the right tree?" the reporter asked, peering at the canopy high above. "I don't think anyone's going to argue with me," Clive laughed in reply.
Busby is an established residential area. Busby is bounded by Green Valley Road in the north, St Johns Road and Heckenberg Avenue in the east, Cartwright Avenue in the south and Banks Road and Rundle Road in the west. Busby is named after James Busby, a pioneer wine maker.
Development of the area dates primarily from the 1960s and 1970s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined slightly since the early 1990s, a result of few dwellings being added and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Bradshaw Park, Whitlam Park and one school.
The summer still of post-war Campbelltown was shattered in December 1920. Its streets and parks suddenly erupted into a frenzy of marching bands, floats, sporting events, horse displays, a historical pageant, a queen competition and even a grant community ball.
The town was celebrating its 100th birthday with zest. And why not?
It was the Roarin' Twenties and optimism was hardly in short supply. The Great War was over, local farmers and businessmen were doing well, Campbelltown's housing market was booming, and the local press bragged of the "astounding improvements" being made to shops and buildings. There was even talk of electricity being connected soon.
Old family names such as Warby, Fitzpatrick, Kershler, and Vardy eagerly joined in the birthday fun. It was only fair, as these clans had helped to pioneer Campbelltown. Yet at the same time, the celebration arguably belonged to one person in particular - a craggy old Scot who had died 96 years earlier.
It was Governor Lachlan Macquarie who had founded and named Campbelltown on the afternoon of December 1, 1820. A crowd of fifty or sixty curious farmers watched as he marked out the site. "This ceremony having gone through, I named the township Campbell-Town in honour of Mrs Macquarie's maiden name, and on my pronouncing this name aloud, all present gave three hearty cheers in honour of the occasion…", the Governor later wrote in his journal. His wife was a member of the powerful Clan Campbell of Cawdor.
But Macquarie's days were already numbered. His policy of appointing ex-convicts to high positions of trust, his humanitarianism, and his generosity with land grants had cost him dearly with enemies in London.
A month before his reluctant return, he managed a final visit to Campbelltown in 1822. However, few of his bold plans had yet come to fruition. The only major construction work was the unfinished St Peter's Anglican Church.
Arrival of the new Governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, saw plans for Campbelltown indefinitely shelved. In 1823, the chief architect, Standish Harris, as that apart from a church, a school, and a few bark huts, the town had little to offer.
Years rolled by as Brisbane's staff dallied and delayed, while Macquarie's dream sat unfinished, except for a scattering of buildings and homes outside the official town boundary.
It wasn't until 1827, a year after Brisbane was replaced as Governor by Sir Ralph Darling, that the first measured plan of "Campbell Town" was finally drawn up by a surveyor called Robert Hoddle.
His grid pattern se the foundation for the new town and, after all his hard work was done, Surveyor-General John Oxley gave Campbelltown its first street names. His choices were hardly subtle, but no doubt delighted and flattered Sir Ralph and his top officials.
The dedication of Dumaresq Street, in particular, was a sure-fire hit, for this was the maiden name of Darling's wife, Eliza. Her elder brother, Henry Dumaresq, was the Governor's private secretary, and another brother, William, had surveyed the road from Campbelltown to Menangle Ford.
The Auditor-General of NSW, William Lithgow, the aide-de-camp to the Governor, Thomas de la Condamine, and a senior staff officer, Archibald Clunes Innes, were all honoured by Lithgow Street, Condamine Street and Innes Street.
Nearby Cordeaux Street denoted William Cordeaux, a government commissioner and wealthy owner of Leppington estate, while Oxley Street was titled for the proud Surveyor- General himself.
Lindesay Street was a nice welcoming present for Colonel Patrick Lindesay of the 38th Regiment, who had arrived in Sydney only weeks before to take command of the garrison. The man he replaced, Colonel William Stewart, is recalled by Stewart Street. One of the young officers accompanying Lindsay was Captain Charles Sturt, who had quickly become a good friend of Oxley's and was therefore rewarded with a place on the map as well - Sturt Street. He later went on, of course, to become one of the more famous explorers.
George Street honoured the reigning monarch, King George IV, while Howe Street paid tribute to William Howe, the Campbelltown police magistrate until 1833. (It had been Howe's constant lobbying for town allotments that had led to the 1827 survey).
Queen Street did not yet exist under its present name. An 1844 map actually describes the main road as "High Street", and "Queen Street" does not seem to have come into common use until early this century. Most likely because it marked the 1897 Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, or her death in 1901.
Despite the new survey, it still wasn't until October 1831 - eleven years after Macquarie's proclamation - that the first settlers were allowed to take possession of their own land. Construction of a convict-built reservoir next to modern-day Hurley Park, and the resulting water supply, saw land values skyrocket.
But the growth probably came too quickly, and the town soon had a piecemeal image. In her book, Campbelltown - the Bicentennial History, Dr Carol Liston notes that buildings, fences and gardens had been built across street lines.
Innes Street, initially meant to join High (Queen) Street, was totally blocked by fences and land owned by Reverend Thomas Reddall and St Peters Church. Steps to re-establish this link were thwarted after protests by the Bishop of Australia, William Broughton. To this day, Innes Street comes to a halt at Lindesay Street, and its remnant on the other side of the church land was renamed Browne Street. This honoured William Browne, a farmer from Appin who was one of the first wardens of St Peter's.
By this time, Campbelltown's outer boundaries had also been established. To the north was a rough track running alongside St Peter's cemetery. It was most likely this geography that caused Broughton Street to be named after the Bishop.
To the south, Allman Street recognised police magistrate, Captain Frances Allman (1836-44), who commanded the iron gang which had built the new water reservoir.
The "Gold Rush" years saw the railway line hurtle south from Sydney to Goulburn, and for some years Campbelltown was a major railhead, with its station opening - with much fanfare - on May 4, 1858.
But the land lying between the main street and the station was still farm paddocks and not yet part of the official town. Taking the bull by the horns, local businessman (and future MP), John Hurley, purchased the farm land in question and subdivided it, creating several new roads.
The reason why Railway Street got its name is obvious, as it connected the station to the main street area. A narrow laneway, today called Short Street may have been given its name in reference to its stunted length. It was always a haphazard site and in the 1920s, Council described it as a "source of nuisance" due to its overgrown grass and weeds.
Patrick Street's origins are more complex, because it is understood the thoroughfare was originally named "Hurley Street", in honour of the subdivider. But the nearby Kings Arms Hotel was owned by a Patrick Hurley. Probably due to confusion, or maybe even small town politics, the lane was soon being called "Patrick Hurley Street". By the 1900s it was simply "Patrick Street".
Another early pathway was narrow Milgate Lane, which was converted into the Milgate Arcade in 1979. It was named for Spencer Samuel Milgate, manager of a nearby hay supply and corner store.
Local confidence suffered a setback in the 1860s and 1870s when rust destroyed the wheat industry. But dairy farming soon replaced it, and a level of hope returned.
Campbelltown Public School opened in January 1876, and Campbelltown Council formed in 1882. It soon made plans for new surveys and alignments of its streets, most of which were gravel, crushed stone or dirt. But well into the early 1900s, Campbelltown was still contained within the framework set by Governor Macquarie in 1820.
In 1901 the Agricultural Society had acquired land for a showground (now located near the Moore-Oxley Bypass), but it was considered "out in the bush". The ground became an army camp in 1914 when the First World War erupted.
It was the end of that bloody conflict that saw the first major residential estates developed outside the old village area.
On November 23, 1918 - just a fortnight after the Armistice - there was an auction of "28 choice building sites, three minutes from the station" at Kershler's Estate, named after a prominent local family.
This created two new roads, the first being King Street. George King and his prominent family lived nearby, operating a general/produce store on the corner of Queen and Broughton Streets. ("King's Paddock") was the name given to the site now occupied by Council).
Iolanthe Street's origins are more uncertain, but the name suggests one of the subdividers or developers was a keen fan of Gilbert and Sullivan, whose satirical operetta, Iolanthe, was first performed in 1882.
Also subdivided at the end of the war was Mossberry Estate, named after an old home at the site (demolished in 1994).
One of the new roads created was Warby Street, recalling pioneer settler John Warby (see Leumeah), whose family still owned large parcels of land in the district. Chamberlain Street was named after a Normanhurst real estate agent called H.W. Chamberlain, who managed the subdivision.
St Peters Church subdivided its glebe as well, naming the two resulting thoroughfares after prominent church figures. Reddall Street recalls Thomas Reddall, the first parish rector, while Moore Street honoured the prominent - and generous - role played by Thomas Moore in establishing the Church of England in the early colony. Moore helped build St Lukes in Liverpool, established the Missionary Society, and left a large slice of his property at modernday Moorebank to the church.
By January 1920, the local newspaper was also advertising Eaglemont Estate, boasting lots in an elevated area with "fine panoramic views which cannot be built out." It was the Genty family that had subdivided this site - hence the creation of Genty Street. The name of their homestead was immortalised by Eaglemont Crescent.
But of all these booming post war estates, none captured the public's imagination more than the Soldier Settlement, east of the township.
As troops returned home from the bloody trenches of the Western Front, the Government could think of no better reward for these brave veterans than to give them their own farms. And under this scheme, it acquired the Cransley dairy farm of Mr Houghton in 1918. (Cransley Cottage still stands near the Campbelltown East shops.) The large property was cut into 38 poultry farms, and about June 1919, diggers and their families moved in.
The three dirt roads in "The settlement" were eventually given names that persist today. Macquarie Avenue recalls the founder of Campbelltown, while Valley Road highlights an obvious geographic feature.
But the main stretch was unquestionably Waminda Avenue. This name was chosen by the diggers themselves, from an Aboriginal term for "comrade". The name was originally given to the settlement's progress society and was said to be "held sacred" by the veterans.
But if Waminda Avenue's history is anything to go by, "Boulevard of Broken Dreams" may have been a more apt title. The farms were a disaster from day one, due to inexperience, lack of capital and war injuries. Dozens of diggers sold up and left. For a time, only pride and guts seemed to keep "The Settlement" afloat.
But Campbelltown itself was growing at a faster rate than ever seen. By 1924, four years after celebrating its centenary, electric power was available.
The Rudd estate, a huge area of land stretching from Chamberlain Street to Leumeah Station was subdivided in 1926 creating "farmlets" for orchard or poultry farming (see chapter on Leumeah). New thoroughfares were Rudd Road - after the family - and Thomas Street. Thomas Rudd, founder of the local family, had been transported as a convict for stealing a bag of sugar.
However, with the onslaught of the Great Depression and World War Two, development grinded to a halt. Campbelltown had seriously overestimated its potential. It wasn't until after the war ended in 1945 that optimism returned, as thousands of young soldiers returned home to marry.
A Campbelltown Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1949, and the following months saw the birth of the first of the famous St Elmo Estate. These would double the size of the township within just a decade, and set the foundations for the city of the future.
The mastermind behind the St Elmo dream was Neil McLean, After the war, he leased the historic St Elmo house at the top of Broughton Street, and ran his "Ronross Hatcheries" poultry business on the nearby hillsides.
But in 1948, disease hit the entire stock and the fowls had to be destroyed.
Down, but not out, McLean turned his hand to real estate. Purchasing his leased property, he hired a surveyor/engineer, Wal Lewis, to design a new subdivision and supervise road construction. It was to become Campbelltown's first "prestige" housing estate.
When work began in 1949, residents were stunned at the lavishness. Located adjacent to Lindesay and Broughton Streets, it boasted large brick homes,kerbing and guttering and sweeping views.
The first road formed was Lilian Street, named after a relative of McLean's. But the estate itself was nicknamed "Snob's Hill" by local residents. McLean was disappointed at the poor sales. "Campbelltown was still regarded by many people as distant - in the sticks," he would later explain. So for his next estate, McLean aimed at an entirely different market - ex-diggers.
St Elmo Estate No 2 proved a godsend for returned soldiers seeking a cheap house and land to raise a family. Hundreds of newcomers were soon moving into fibro and weatherboard homes north of Snob's Hill.
Newly-formed streets were named after the family of the developer, including a McLean Road. His two children were noted by Rosalind Crescent and Ronald Street, while other family names were noted by Ruzac Street and Clark Crescent. An unusually-named Mereil Street was invented by joining the first names of Neil McLean and his wife, Merle.
McLean had wanted to expand his estate northwards into the scrubby "Warby Paddock", but the owner refused to sell. So in 1955, he opened new subdivisions south of Allman Street, which would be known at St Elmo Estate Nos 3, 4, 5 and 6. This land was on a part of the old property once held by William Bradbury, so the newly-built main road was given the title Bradbury Avenue.
This now forms the official boundary of Campbelltown and Bradbury and many of the St Elmo streets created are now regarded as part of Bradbury (which did not exist in 1950s) and will be dealt with in that chapter.
Tiny Asher Place recalls an old family, with Charlie Asher being the Council's overseer of works in the 1920s. Hammond Place recalls early publican, Thomas Hammond, who built Campbelltown's original court house in 1826, while Meehan Place honours early surveyor James Meehan (see Macquarie Fields).
A major thoroughfare was planned to be "Worrall Road" - after George Worrall. But as this was the same man hanged for murdering Frederick Fisher (whose ghost is our town patron), it was rejected by a defensive Council. So the new name was Grandview Drive, highlighting the view across to the Scenic Hills. Geographic considerations were also used for High Street and Hilltop Crescent.
Farnsworth Avenue remembers the mayor of the day, Jack Farnsworth (1953-57), while Hannaford Street notes an earlier mayor, Charlie Hannaford (1919-25), who had owned a dairy farm in the area. But one of the properties being subdivided for housing was Austin Park, once owned by James Bocking - hence Austin Avenue. Percy Marlow, Mayor from 1926-30, 1939-46 and 1951-53, is remembered by Marlow Place, while Sheather Place was inspired by Frederick Sheather, town clerk for the marathon term of 1901-44.
Other smaller streets included Lachlan Place (the Christian name of the town's founder), Fisher Place, after the famous spectre, and Ruse Place after pioneering farmer, James Ruse.
The origins of Radnor Place and Rogers Place are unclear, although several early settlers went by the name of Rogers.
By 1957, St Elmo was being so widely used as an address that the local newspaper had to curtly remind its readers they lived in Campbelltown.
Forming the eastern boundary of the St Elmo Estates was an old and rutted dirt track known as Wedderburn Road (due to its destination). But with the development of the new estates, the road was diverted, sealed and renamed St Johns Road.
It was so titled because it ran past St Johns Catholic Preparatory College for Boys, run by the Sisters of Good Samaritan. This facility later closed in 1969 and became the new home of St Patrick's Girls College. Nearby St Thomas More Primary School, founded in 1978, was named after the Catholic parish church at Ruse, which honours the Archbishop killed by Henry VIII for refusing to renounce the Pope's authority.
Campbelltown was rocked in 1955, when the giant manufacturer Crompton Parkinson Pty Ltd announced it wanted to build a new factory on rural paddocks west of the railway station. The township had no factories at the time, and the hundreds of new jobs it would create stirred huge excitement.
Bursting with glee, Council decided to create an entire industrial estate next to the Crompton Parkinson site. In 1956, it officially resumed the land to develop new streets and blocks.
Surrounded by small farms, Badgally road had already existed for years. It was named after its destination, the hill on which St Gregory's College now stands. Earlier this century, Badgally was actually pronounced "Badjally". The Sydney Gazette of October 19, 1811, reported a kangaroo hunt at the site, describing it as "Badge Allen" hill.
Blaxland Road was created as part of the industrial estate, but was little more than a dirt path and ran much shorter than its current length. It was presumedly named in memory of explorer Gregory Blaxland, who succeeded in crossing the Blue Mountains in 1813.
Other new roads recognised families who road owned the land resumed. Farrow Road, next to the railway station, recalled farmer William Farrow, while Rose Street and Kialba Road paid tribute to the Payten family.
Kialba had been the name of a beautiful old home built by architect Alfred Payten at the turn of the century, which stood close to the railway line until it was demolished in the 1960s. Adjoining Rose Street honours the maiden name of Alfred's mother, Sarah, a daughter of Thomas Rose of Mount Gilead.
Developed for industry much later, Watford Road honours James Watford, whose local mail coaches once ran daily to Parramatta and Sydney. In 1989, Council also approved a subdivision of 18 new factory lots, calling the newly formed thoroughfare Frost Road. This recalled John Frost, born in Campbelltown about 1840. His descendants contributed to the community and once farmed the nearby fields. A son, Thomas Frost, was an aldermen in the 1920s.
By the late 1950s, the town still came to an abrupt end at Camden Road (named for its destination). Directly south was a nine-hole golf course. In 1954, this was purchased by Cumberland County Council (forerunner of the State Planning Authority) and in 1957 expanded to an 18-hole championship course.
Old Menangle Road would through the middle of it, but with the 1957 expansion, steps were taken to block its path. Only a tiny portion of it, near Emily Cottage, was left. The Campbelltown Catholic Club would open nearby in 1968, and in 1994, the last remnant of Old Menangle Road became part of that club's car park.
A gravel road which ran from the southern part of Queen Street into parkland alongside Fisher's Ghost Creek was named Milby Road by the Council in April 1960. Only a small section of it survives today, as an entrance way to the carpark of Fisher's Ghost Restaurant. This building had once been a private hospital called Milby - hence the road name.
The northern part of town had been developing more steadily, and July 1959 saw the opening of Campbelltown North Public School. Nearby Campbelltown High School, which began at Liverpool Junior Technical School in 1954, had moved to its present site in 1956. It was shortly after this that Tyler Street - apparently named for a local family - was created.
But the major developer in the north during the late 1950s and early 1960s was undoubtedly the Housing Commission. The first streets it created were called after the builders it employed - Alam Homes, the Lytton company and J. Dan Pty Ltd. Both Seddon Place and Cuthel Place noted well-known family names.
Old "Warby Paddock", which Neil McLean had been unable to purchase in 1954, was later resumed by the Government and in August 1961, the Commission launched a new estate with streets named after British poets and writers to give it a "classy" image. Burns Road (named after the Scottish bard Robbie Burns) forms the suburb boundary, and streets east of it are dealt with in the chapter on Leumeah.
Those on the Campbelltown side include (Lord) Byron Avenue, (William) Shakespeare Street, (Percy) Shelley Street, (Alexander) Pope Place, (Sir Walter) Scott Street and (Robert) Browning Avenue.
In July 1960, the front page of the CI News declared it to be the end of an ear. "With the closing down of the last poultry farm in the Soldiers Settlement at Campbelltown, the end has come to a colourful ear in local history," the paper reported. "The area is now a bustling centre of road construction workers and builders as the first of hundreds of homes take shape." It was the start of the urban area known unofficially know as "Campbelltown East".
The newly-developed streets between Waminda Avenue and Smiths Creek were named for Australian capital cities, being Canberra Crescent, Brisbane Road, Darwin Road, Hobart Avenue, Perth Avenue and Adelaide Avenue. The "border town" of Albury is also noted.
Other streets were named after Australian poets, such as Banjo Patterson, CJ Dennis, Henry Lawson, Dorothea Mackellar and Henry Kendall. This area eventually blended with the Housing Commission development off Burns Road to become known as the "Poets Corner".
One odd street left over, Valinda Crescent, was named after the home building firm of the same name.
On the higher land to the south, streets were named after great Australian rivers. These include the Richmond, Colo, Nepean, Barwon, Megalong, Loddon, Murray, Manning, Apsley, Hunter, Hastings, Clyde and Gwydir.
Streets off Macquarie Avenue followed the first name theme used in the older St Elmo Estate nearby, such as Ronald Street. The result was Raymond Avenue, Russell Street and Randolph Street.
By 1965, local bus indicators still called it "The Settlement" but the local press referred to the new estate areas as "East Campbelltown". Calls to turn it into a separate suburb were made, but never succeeded.
Campbelltown East Primary School opened in February 1961, and three years later, Council bought Valley Road Reserve as a recreation area. In 1969, two new ovals for cricket and football were built at Waminda Reserve next to Smiths Creek.
The Housing Commission purchased a large slice of land between Broughton Street and Valley Road and in 1970 let tenders for road construction and housing. Due to their close proximity to Macquarie Avenue, the two new streets were named after Governor Arthur Phillip and Sir Joseph Banks.
Other streets in the area recalled Aboriginal place names such as Bilgola, Carcoola, Coolah, Bundarra, Karuah, Coraki and Yennora.
Developed at the same time was Hume Street and Mitchell Street, named after the famous explorers, Hamilton Hume and Sir Thomas Mitchell - probably because they were so close to Sturt Street.
The only roads in the Campbelltown East area not yet mentioned are Colonial Street and College Road. This is because they didn't exist until the late 1970s - well, in name anyway.
Their routes actually form the original path of Georges River Road, as it left George Street on its way to Kentlyn. When a better access across Smiths Creek was opened in 1977 by extending Broughton Street, the old route was sliced in two at Waminda Avenue. Colonial Street was the name chosen for the north section by residents, while College Road recognised nearby St Patrick's Girls College.
By 1960, the wisdom of locating an industrial area west of the railway was being questioned. Factories already established had found it was flood prone and remote. The only access was via a railway level crossing linking Broughton Street and Badgally Road, and motorists were subjected to long delays due to shunting and hold-ups at the nearby railway station.
In August 1961, Council pinned its hopes on Langdon Avenue, described at the time as "a road constructed in a recently new subdivision". (The Landons were an old family and Muriel Langdon would win the Miss Spirit contest at the 1962 Fisher's Ghost Festival.
It was proposed to make Langdon Avenue the new level crossing, but in April 1962 the Railways Department decided it didn't want any level crossings at all, and offered to contribute to the cost of a new road entrance. So, for the rest of the 1960s and much of the 1970s, anyone wanting to get into the industrial area had to drive over the Campbelltown Road railway overbridge, enter Kialba Road, turn into Rose Street, and then head along Blaxland Road.
By 1974, the pot-holed, maze-like entrance to the Industrial area was causing outrage. An angry Chamber of Commerce demanded Blaxland Road be extended to Camden Road to form a new access. But lack of funding prevented any action.
However, when it became clear to residents of the proposed Claymore estate would have the "unenviable task of negotiating Rose-Kialba Street horror stretch" simply to drive to and from home, the Council began negotiations with the owner of most of the land, Crompton Parkinson, in 1976.
Yet it was not until three years later that the company agreed to selling two hectares for the Blaxland Road extension. And even then, work did not begin until 1980.
Meanwhile, in January 1979, Blaxland Road in the north had been linked with Campbelltown Road anyway, and the difficult Kialba Road entrance had been closed off.
A new street created off this northern extension was named Mill Road. This paid homage to Old Keighran's Steam Mill which was built nearby in 1855 but fell into disuse after rust destroyed the wheat crops. It nevertheless remained a famous landmark at the entrance to Campbelltown, until it was demolished, and its stone used for an army chapel in 1968.
With the massive expansion of Campbelltown in the 1970's, there was major concerns about the traffic congestion in Queen Street. It claimed a bypass was needed for through-traffic - a plan which called for the realignment and extension of two older roads, t form the Moore-Oxley Bypass.
This was not a new idea, and had been proposed as early as 1955. Work started in July 1973 on the massive project, which would eventually see Campbelltown and Appin Roads joined by a sweeping dual carriageway. And although there is still some work to be done, the basic link was opened to traffic in November 1980.
Rudd Road was split in two by the Bypass, and the smaller section adjacent to Campbelltown High School was renamed Beverley Road. This was to honour nearby Beverley Park Hospital and School, on land donated to the NSW Crippled children's Association in 1938.
The old route of Queen Street , south of Camden Road, has also been renamed. In this case, as Art Gallery Road, after the cultural facility which was opened in 1988.
The busy intersection of Queen Street and Lithgow Street was closed in August 1979, and a year later it was redeveloped as the Lithgow Street Mall - a "peaceful haven for shoppers". Part of the main street itself was closed in the mid-1980's, to create a leafy Queen Street Mall near the famed cluster of 1940's heritage buildings.
Development of arcades and car parks within the CBD have also seen the creation of new laneways.
The oldest of these would most likely be Coogan Lane, near the post office. From the late 1950's, Alderman Bill Coogan (who owned a butchery in Queen Street) had argued for the need to establish a car park at the rear of the shops. Council finally agreed, and in January 1962, the large site was opened. Just four months later, Ald Coogan died at the age of 54, so in tribute, Council named the access way into the car park after him.
Anzac Lane was named after the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, due to its proximity to the RSL Club. Carberry Lane, which leads to the multi-level car park opened in 1991, was named for Nicholas Carberry, who was an Appin innkeeper in the 1830's.
In March 1981, the narrow access tot he car park between Browne and Broughton Street was called Appey Lane. This recalls Appey Mohr, a spinster school teacher who lived in an old house near the railway station in the late 1800's.
Plans were announced in 1980 to construct a major new road along the railway. Developed over the next few years, it was named Hurley Street, in honour of the town pioneer John Hurley, who originally subdivided the area in the 1850's.
Plans to develop a "Regional City Centre" on the green hills south east of Queen Street, had been made public as early as 1971. It was to feature high-rise office blocks, conference facilities, sports stadiums, transport interchanges, and become a city within a city.
Quarter of a century later, most of the grand plans have failed to materialise. But, in the other hand many have, such as Campbelltown Hospital (1977), Macarthur Shopping Square (1979), Campbelltown TAFE (1981), Macarthur Rail Station (1985) and the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, first established as an Institute for Higher Education in 1983.
A network of new roads to serve this "Regional Centre" have since been built. Therry Road recalls John Therry, the pioneering Catholic priest, while Gilchrist Drive honours Campbelltown's first Presbyterian preacher, Hugh Gilchrist.
Other roads note early land grantees in the surrounding areas - John Kellicar, Daniel Tindall, John b, William Eggleton, Daniel Geary and Thomas Tailby. Thomas Robinson was an early teacher at the St Peter's Church school and a small road behind the motor registry recalls Barney Bugden, who ran a black-smithy at the southern end of Queen Street in the 1920's.
Campbelltown is lucky to boast several large parks or reserves, some more than a century old.
Best-known is probably leafy Mawson Park, located in the heart of the CBD. This was where Governor Macquarie had given the town its name in 1920, and for years was known as either "The Green" or "The Recreation Reserve". In 1938, it was named in honour of Dr William Mawson, who retired after 28 years of practice in the town. In August 1969, council increased the size of the park by closing part of Howe Street near St Peter's Church.
Hurley Park was originally a cattle paddock and the site of the first stone water reservoir, built by the convict iron gang. It appears to have been used as a "common" later that century, but sparked controversy in 1897 when the site "reverted" to the Crown. Alderman Charles Bull led efforts to have the paddock declared a park, and while this debate raged, the Campbelltown News mourned the death of P.B. Hurley in March 1898. There were many tributes made to both he and his father, local pioneer John Hurley MLA, one of which was probably the dedication of the park name. The fight to protect the site as a public reserve was won, but it continued to be used for grazing purposes, and even a small tip, until a sportsground was created in the 1960s.
The old reservoir had stopped functioning as Campbelltown's water supply in 1888, but it remained full for decades after. One newspaper report mentions a huge community picnic held at the site in November 1918, noting "acquatic displays in the once-tabooed reservoir exhilarated spectators." It continued: "If Sydney could boast such a swimming basin all her jealousy of Campbelltown might be washed away". The now-dry reservoir is under careful restoration, amid some debate whether it could be filled again to create a "water feature".
The Showground was used as just that (and a cricket ground) until 1974, when the Campbelltown City Show was relocated to Menangle Park. In 1979, the old showground of the Harlequins Ruby Union Club.
Popular Koshigaya Park was developed from an old paddock originally granted to Joseph Phelps. After Campbelltown formed a Sister-City pact with the Japanese city of Koshigaya in 1984, the lovingly landscaped park was named in its honour.
Centenary Park, sitting on the high crest behind St Elmo house, boasts sweeping views of the city and was originally earmarked as a site for Campbelltown Hospital, and then the Tafe. These plans were abandoned, of course, and in 1981 the State Government handed the hilltop to Council as a public reserve, possibly a lookout. Local parliamentarian, Cliff Mallam, pressed for it to become a tree-lined botanical garden, named "Lang Park". He claimed legendary ALP Premier Jack Lang, and the poet Henry Lawson, used to sit on the crest, boil the billy, and talk politics around the turn of the century.
But in 1982, Campbelltown Council was celebrating its 100th birthday - so the reserve was called "Centenary Park".
The newest addition to the suburb's green spaces is so new, it still only exists in name. The grassy paddock and shallow creek behind the Catholic Club is planned to become Marsden Park. This recognises the role played in the Campbelltown community by local publican and alderman, Guy Marsden, and his wife, Tibby (Phyllis), who both died in the 1980s.
Carnes Hill / West Hoxton is a recent residential area. Carnes Hill / West Hoxton is bounded by a line above McIver Avenue in the north, Cowpasture Road in the east, Bringelly Road in the south and the Sydney Water Supply Channel in the west. West Hoxton includes the southern part of the suburb of Middleton Grange.
Development of the area dates primarily from the late 1990s. Rapid growth took place between 1996 and 2001, with the population increasing more than sixfold. Rapid growth continued between 2001 and 2006.
Major features of the area include Lake Francis and a number of schools.
Cartwright is an established residential and parkland area. Cartwright is bounded by Cabramatta Creek in the north, Trotters Creek in the east, Hoxton Park Road in the south and Millers Bridge in the north.
Development of the area dates primarily from the 1960s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined since the 1990s, a result of little change in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Liverpool City BMX Club, Powell Park, Macarthur Community College (Cartwright Campus) and one school.
Casula is a relatively recent residential area with some commercial areas. Casula is bounded by the South Western Motorway in the north and west, the Georges River in the east and Glenfield Road and Campbelltown Road in the south.
Settlement of the area dates from the late 1800s, with land used mainly for poultry farming, market gardening and fruit growing. Significant development did not occur until the post-war years. Rapid growth took place during the 1970s and 1980s. The population continued to increase from the 1990s, with the number of residents doubling between 1991 and 2006.
Major features of the area include Casula Mall Shopping Centre, Crossroads Homemaker Centre, Crossroads Megamart Centre, Powerhouse Regional Arts Centre, Leacock Regional Park, Glenfield Farm (historic property) and a number of schools.
Cecil Hills is a recent residential area. Cecil Hills is bounded by Elizabeth Drive in the north, Cowpasture Road in the east, Lascelles Street and Hinchinbrook Creek in the south and a line following the extent of residential development in the west. Cecil Hills is named after an original property in the area.
Settlement of the area dates from the early 1800s, with land used mainly for beef and sheep farming. Significant development did not occur until the early 1990s. Rapid growth took place during the 1990s, with the population nearly quadrupling between 1996 and 2001. Growth continued from 2001, although at a much slower rate.
Major features of the area include Cecil Hills Shopping Centre, Cecil Hills Farm, Gough Park, Pye Hill Reserve and two schools.
Chipping Norton is an established residential and industrial area. Chipping Norton is bounded by Chipping Norton Lake and the Georges River in the north, the Georges River in the east, Newbridge Road in the south and the Georges River in the west. Chipping Norton is named after the borough and market town near Oxford in England.
Settlement of the area dates from the early 1800s, being the first area in Liverpool City to be settled. Land grants were made to settlers along the Georges River. Growth was minimal until the 1880s. Expansion continued in the early 1900s, aided by the establishment of farms under the Returned Soldier Settlement Scheme. Significant development occurred during the post-war years.
The population increased slightly during the 1990s, then declined marginally between 2001 and 2006, a result of little change in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size. Major features of the area include Chipping Norton Lake, Angle Park, Heron Park, Lake Moore Wetlands, Lakeside Shopping Centre and a number of schools.
To be locked up in chains and forcibly transported across the seas as a convict was in fact a big stroke of luck for many poor Englishmen of the early 1800's. Because after their sentences had expired, many went on to amass a level of wealth, power and land ownership thought impossible back home.
One such man was Thomas Clarkson - "founding father" of the Eagle Vale area.
Arriving at Sydney Cove under a 14-year sentence in 1806, Clarkson had won a pardon by 1811. And thanks to hard work, business acumen, and a touch of luck, he quickly prospered as both a publican and a baker.
Within two years of receiving his 100-acre (40ha) grant at the foot of what is now the Scenic Hills in 1816, Clarkson had acquired several adjoining grants. He named his enlarged property Woodland Grove an indication of the thick bushland that once covered the slopes.
It was on one of the these newly-purchased portions - 50 acres (20ha) originally granted to Mark Millington - that Clarkson built a fine brick house for himself about 1820.
By the time Clarkson died in 1826, his total estate covered almost 1400 acres (560ha) and was one of the largest farms on Campbelltown's western hills.
It was two years later that a wealthy widow called Jemima Jenkins bought the property. She was a cousin of Lord Horatio Nelson, the hero of Trafalgar, and her husband had been a founder of the Bank of NSW (later Westpac).
But she discarded the name Woodland Grove and instead gave her address as "Eagle Farm, Eagle Vale". An early map shows the property had two shallow streams - "Eagle Creek" and "Vale Brook".
Much of the waterway was replaced by flood mitigation devices in the 1980's, such as retention basins and stormwater pipes. But marking the creek's former route today is two major parks - Eagle Farm Reserve (named after the early homestead) and leafy Thomas Clarkson Reserve, which pays tribute to the pioneer farmer.
Dozens of convicts and servants were employed on Eagle Vale by Jemima Jenkins, tending crops and looking after hundreds of sheep, cattle and horses.
At a time when few women owned real estate, she seems to have been an unusually independent and liberated lady, actively lobbying for improved roads, schools and churches.
Robert Pitt Jenkins, MLC, inherited Eagle Vale on his mother's death in 1842, yet he and his young family were drowned in a shipwreck shortly after selling the estate in 1858.
The purchaser was William Fowler, a Campbelltown storekeeper and postmaster, and the property was renamed again - this time to Eschol Park (see Eschol Park).
As the decades rolled on, the Eagle Vale name became largely unused and forgotten.
It was only in the mid 1970's - when a host of new suburbs were being planned for Campbelltown's western hills - that the old name was resurrected by Council. The suggestion met wide support and in 1976 "Eagle Vale" was approved by the geographical Names Board.
The suburb name is definitely two words, even though some early residents, maps and press reports spelt it "Eaglevale".
Landcom purchased much of the land and in December 1978 it announced the first 290 lots would soon be released. When they finally became available in the early 1980's, they were mostly snapped up by young couples buying their first home.
A major road connecting Raby Road and Badgally road was built in 1980-81 and called Eagle Vale Drive. Today it forms the official suburb border with neighbouring Eschol Park.
But the streets being built in Eagle Vale itself still needed to be named. So in October 1980, the Council approved a theme of "minerals and gemstones".
Some of the mineral names which can now be spotted on street signs include: Malachite, Zeolite, Peat, Alabaster, Bauxite, Calcite, Lodestone, Cinnabar, Clay, Feldspar, Quartz, Saltpetre, Serpentine, Fluorite, Galena, Gypsum, Talc, Pyrite, Mica, Lignite and Silica.
Some of the gemstones are: Aquamarine, Onyx, Jade, Diamond, Topaz, Sapphire, Moonstone, Cameo, Peridot, Agate, Turquoise, Amethyst, Amber and Opal. The suburbs main thoroughfare is Emerald Drive.
But what type of minerals or gemstones were honoured by Namatjira Close, Power Close and Ashton Close? The answer is simple. None!
These streets actually recall famous Aboriginal artist, Albert Namatjira, the Australian War artist, Septimus Power, and founder of Adelaide's Academy of the Arts, James Ashton.
Some adjoining streets also note artists as famous as Lloyd Rees, William Dargie, Oswald Brierley, Albert Newbury and Frank Crozier. These names reveal the fact that this south-western part of Eagle Vale was actually once part of Claymore (which uses "great Australian artists" as its street names).
The area was developed as a private subdivision, but by 1986 residents angrily claimed their "image" and land values were suffering as they were considered to be part of Claymore's Housing Commission estate. After two years lobbying, the Council finally agreed to move the suburb boundary, bringing the streets into Eagle Vale.
Major housing estates have continued well into the mid-1990's, one of the most recent being the Eagle Ridge Estate near Raby Road.
Eagle Vale High School was built in 1984, while St Mary Immaculate Catholic Primary School was officially opened in 1986.
Campbelltown's most modern swimming facilities came to the suburb in 1993, with the opening of Eagle Vale Leisure Centre off Emerald Drive. And not long after the Eagle Vale Shopping Centre opened it's doors boasting a McDonalds and a Woolworths grocery store.
The suburb of Eschol Park is spelt wrongly. By all rights, it should be "Eshcol Park", because that was the original title given to its namesake property in 1858 by William Fowler. He was a devout Christian and because it was a vineyard he was establishing on the hillside property, he named it after the "Promised Land of Eshcol" in the Bible. But right from the outset there were problems with the awkward spelling. Even in the earliest church registers and land title documents, "Eshcol" was often mistakenly spelt as "Eschol".
In 1975, when plans for a suburb at the site were under way, the Geographical Names Board inadvertently approved the use of the wrong spelling. And more than 30 years later, the name is too well entrenched to ever be corrected. Even Fowler's old home is known as Eschol Park House, and is a popular local restaurant. The earliest section of the old homestead was built about 1816, on a property that was to become well-known as Eagle Vale - hence the name of the neighbouring suburb.
But when William Fowler took over the large holding in the 1850s, he gave it his preferred Biblical title. An avenue of fine old trees in Eschol Park Drive, off Raby Road, guards what was once the entrance to the historic mansion. As well as being a warden and trustee of St Peters Anglican Church, Fowler was a Campbelltown storekeeper and postmaster. His premises were at 292-294 Queen Street, one of the four Georgian homes opposite Campbelltown Shopping Mall, and some extensions he made are still clearly visible on close examination of the stonework.
Fowler quickly established an extensive vineyard and two-storey winery on his property, and within a decade or so, was producing 2000 to 3000 gallons of award-winning wines. In 1876, he sold all his land to Samuel Spencer Milgate, who owned a local produce store off Queen Street. John Gorus, a Dutch photographer, bought the property two years later and continued the viticulture tradition. While Gorus was the owner, Eschol Park was auctioned by Hardie and Gorman. The pamphlet described a brick and stone residence, wine cellars, an ornamental lake, extensive flower gardens, and an orchard planted with oranges, bananas, and almost "every description of stone fruit". Farm buildings included a stable, cow house, buggy house, carpenter's workshop and a slaughter house. One feature described in the auction pamphlet was a large manure tank "into which the sweepings of the sheep sheds, stables, and fowl houses are placed ; there they remain until winter, when each vine and tree that appears to require assistance receives its share." But vineyards across the region were badly hit in the 1890s when the phylloxera disease struck, and Eschol Park was devastated.
The area remained rural hills, dominated by dairy cattle, until the mid-1970s, when it was earmarked for future housing developments. By April 1978, Landcom was pressing Campbelltown Council to decide on some street names for its Highfield Estate, the first part of the proposed suburb. Its brick gateway can still be seen off Raby Road.
Given the famous wines that once covered the slopes, it was decided to name all of Eschol Park's streets after varieties of grape grown in Australia, as well as wine types, methods and terms. To this end, grape varieties are today recalled by Cabernet Avenue, Chardonnay Avenue, Pinot Street, Chasselas Avenue, Muscat Place, Frontignan Place, Albillo Place, Sauvignon Close and Tokay Place. Also Riesling Place, Shiraz Place, Marsanne Place, Malbec Place, Doradillo Place, Grenache Place, Trebbiano Place, Semillon Crescent, Palomino Close, Sercial Place, Traminer Place and Mataro Place. Wine types, methods and terms included are Burgundy, Chablis, Claret, Dalwood, Hermitage, Michinbury, Moselle, Solero, Sauternes, Spumante and Tanunda. Brand names also get a look-in with Hardy Street and Wynn Street.
Eschol Park Primary School was opened in 1985, and the nearby Eschol Park Sports Complex was created in the early 1980s. This complex, consisting of sporting fields which double as water detention basins in times of flood, follows a branch of the old Eagle Creek. This was converted into a series of cascading detention basins in the 1970s, and a public park now stands on what was once the headwaters - Eagle Creek Reserve. A minor tributary creek running into it had once been known as "Vale Brook". Hence the name Vale Brook Reserve. The early vigneron of Eschol Park himself is remembered by William Fowler Reserve.
"Glen Alpine" is the answer to your dreams!" Or so claimed the Lend Lease Corporation, in a 1986 promotion for its newest prestige housing estate.
Two decades later, that same estate virtually surrounds the Campbelltown Golf Course. And aimed squarely at the well-heeled "executive" market, Glen Alpine boasts beautiful parks and large blocks of land, most of which are able to take a home, pool, outdoor entertainment area, or even a tennis court.
Most people are aware the suburb name itself comes from Glen Alpine, the historic homestead which stands - fully restored - off Belltrees Close.
But a lot of people don't realise that it is not the original Glen Alpine, which was built by the Reddall family in the late 1820s.
Reverend Thomas Reddall was the first Anglican clergyman ever appointed to Campbelltown. He personally supervised the construction of St Peter's Church in Cordeaux Street, and served as its rector from 1823 until his death 15 years later.
The original Glen Alpine was built sometime in the late 1820s on land owned by his son, John Reddall, but was officially conveyed to Reddall senior's ownership.
The robust clergyman was well-known for his educational efforts in the Sydney schools, Aboriginal institutions, an exclusive boarding school for boys at Macquarie Fields, and a school at St Peters Church. (Thomas Reddall High School in Ambarvale recognises his work).
But Reddall died at his home in 1838, leaving his family to fight through a tangled web of financial problems. By the end of the century, the family had lost control of the property.
It's believed Glen Alpine fell into disrepair, and was eventually burnt to the ground in the early 1900s.
The site of that first home is now set aside as Heritage Park, off Abington Crescent, and still includes many of the original trees planted by the Reddall family.
The house which is now called Glen Alpine was built by James Sheil before World War One. The Sheils had taken over the property around 1900, and held it until the 1950s, when there was a string of other owners, including the former Mayor, Gordon Fetterplace.
By the early 1970s, the grassy hills were already earmarked for future development, and in 1976 the "Glen Alpine" suburb name was approved.
But shunted to the sidelines, the area was then left virtually ignored for years as housing estates spread across Ambarvale and Rosemeadow. The fact the NSW Water Board was unable to sewer the area for almost a decade, added to the delays.
Apart from farming, the only major activity until the 1980s was sport. Campbelltown's new championship golf course had been created to replace the old course (behind the Catholic Club) which was closed to make way for the proposed "Regional Centre". In July 1978, NSW Governor, Sir Roden Cutler, officially opened the $2.5 million course and clubhouse. When Lend Lease finally launched Glen Alpine housing estate in September 1986, it did so with the richest golfing tournament ever seen in the district.
From the start, Lend Lease had planned to develop its estate as a "prestige" one, surrounded by well-kept fairways and greens.
Year after year, high-income earners were enticed to buy. "Glen Alpine - because your address says a lot about who you are," proclaimed advertisements from 1991. "Quiet, gently curving streets and private cul-de-sacs, magnificent homes (and) superb gardens. This is a place where quality is expected, success is taken for granted, and perfection is a way of life."
In 1986, Council approved Lend Lease's suggestion that main roads in the suburb be named after surrounding landmarks. Glen Alpine Drive notes, of course, the old house, while Heritage Way takes its name from the park which marks the site of the original home.
Mount Huon Circuit recalls a dairy farm which had stood next to Glen Alpine property earlier this century, just south of modern Macarthur Square. Mount Sugarloaf was a large farm to the south.
At the same time, minor roads were designed to pay tribute to some of Australia's premier homesteads. Some of these include Figtree House, Belltrees, Armytage House, Ashfield Castle, Clydebank House, Werribee Park, Narryna, Loder House, Somercoates, Fernhill and Charnwood Court. Some of the less ear-pleasing homestead titles - Euro-Reko, Bontharambo and Grossman House - remain unused.
It should be noted that the old Reddall grant actually only covered the southern portion of the modern suburb. Land now occupied by streets north of the main Glen Alpine Drive round-about was once a patchwork of small farming grants held by John Kellicar, Daniel Geary and Daniel Tindall.
If these names seem familiar, don't be too surprised. Kellicar Road, Geary Street and Tindall Street can all be found near Macarthur Square today.
Glenfield gets its name from the famous property founded by early colonial surgeon, Charlies Throsby. Yet virtually none of the modern-day suburb actually stands on that old land grant!
The Glenfield property was in fact located further north, near Casula, and only ever reached as far south as The Crossroads.
So why did the settlement adopt Glenfield as its name? Well, like a lot of Australian country towns, Glenfield forged its identity through its railway station.
The first railway platform was built in 1869, but stood about a kilometre north of the present stations. (This was on a site close to where the East Hills Line now veers away from the old track).
In 1869 there was not village in the surrounding area - only a few scattered farms. So in search of a name, the Railway Commissioner named the platform after Throsby's old grant.
It wasn't until 12 years later, in 1881, that the first subdivision of the paddocks now known as the suburb of Glenfield were marketed.
This land was originally part of the Macquarie Field property which had belonged to James Meehan. But because another subdivision south of Bunbury-Curran Creek had already been called Macquarie Fields, a new title had to be found.
Exactly when the "Glenfield" appellation was first used for the village is unknown. But the blocks of land sold quickly and it wasn't long before the first railway platform - sitting isolated north of the estate - closed down. It was re-opened on the present site in 1891.
But what are the origins of the name itself? The atlas shows "Glenfield" as a small village near Leicester in England - and it was here that Charles Throsby was born in 1777.
This talented surgeon came to Sydney Cove in 1802, and from 1804-09 was the commandant the penal settlement of Newcastle. Shortly afterwards, he retired to a 950 acre (380ha) grant near Liverpool. And here, Throsby built his magnificent Glenfield House in 1816.
Between that year and 1821, he became involved in exploration, making overland treks to Jervis Bay and Bathurst. He was rewarded for his discoveries with an 1000 acre (400ha) grant in the Southern Highlands - the famous Throsby Park.
A Throsby biographer, Rachel Roxburgh, has described him as a "withdrawn and thoughtful man, combining integrity with a certain lack of humour." She notes he was absorbed with a deep interest in his adopted land and its native people. "One of the first to regard the Aborigines as human beings, he lived among them and made friends with them," she wrote.
But Throsby's world came crashing down around him in the mid-1820s when a business partner fled the colony and left him heavily in debt. Worn out by ill health and the ensuing litigation and anxiety, the good doctor committed suicide at Glenfield in 1828.
Parish maps show the earliest land grantees along the fertile banks of the Georges River were William Day, William Keele and Aaron Byrne.
But by far, the bulk of the modern suburb was a patchwork of farm paddocks belonging to the Macquarie Field property. By the 1850s, all this land was owned by Martha and John Hosking (see the chapter on Macquarie Fields). As explained earlier, it was in 1881 that this land was sold to developers and subdivided for residential allotments and small farms.
Glenfield's earliest streets - or dirt tracks - were now created, many possibly out of old farm laneways. Hosking Crescent recalled the subdividing family, while Harrow Road may have been named to conjure up rural images for buyers. ( a harrow is a toothed agricultural implement drawn over ploughed land to level it.) But then again, Harrow was also the name of a famous English school, founded in 1571.
If Fawcett Road and Belmont Road were named by the subdividers, the reasons why appear to have died with the men involved. Maybe they noted local family or property names?
Canterbury Road and Newtown Road may have been named in honour of the Sydney suburbs, but some early maps list the latter as "Newton Road". Railway Parade ran parallel to the railway, north from Macquarie Fields.
A public school opened in a tent on the western side of the railway near the old platform in 1882, yet parents argued it should be moved to eastern side where the children lived. More than three decades later, in 1913, Glenfield Public School opened on its present site.
Glenfield's first church, a Presbyterian chapel, opened in 1901. The post office accepted its first mail in October 1899. By 1911, the tiny village had 170 people living in 36 homes.
The terrible state of Glenfield's roads drew some unfavourable attention in August 1929. In those days, horses and drays hauled timber along the main street, from Cleary's Mill (now Chesham parade) to the railway station. Logs were also carried many miles to the mill, digging up the streets. On one occasion, the Liverpool doctor refused to drive his horse and buggy to Glenfield as the ruts in the roads were "literally three feet deep".
The year 1929 saw a move to build a rail spur from Glenfield station to the river. At that time thousands of dray loads of sand were being carted from the river to Sydney by train, where they were used in the construction of Central Railway Station. But the line was heavily opposed by Glenfield Progress Association and was never built.
Well into the fifties, Glenfield remained a rural backwater. It was only in 1953 that Belmont Road and Canterbury Roads were sealed.
The Campbelltown-Ingleburn News may have called Glenfield "one of the farthest outposts of the Campbelltown Empire", but in July 1957, it also noted the village was "making strides in development". It wrote: "A building block of land was sold in Glenfield recently for £500. A local estate agent said on the weekend he believes this to be a record price for land in the village. With such prices being realised for land in the town it is not surprising to see many new buildings in the course of erection."
A major landmark was the Frank Whiddon Masonic Homes which was opened in 1953. It was named after the Masonic Grand Master of the 1940s who had sponsored the project.
Charles Symonds had left the land to the Masonic Lodge on his death. The property itself was known as Easton Park, after his wife, Ethel Easton Sydmonds.
The 1950s and 1960s saw new roads created as modern subdivisions were opened on the outskirts of the tiny village. An old thoroughfare which had been known to local folk as "Railway Avenue" was renamed by developers as Trafalgar Street. This was most likely in honour of the legendary sea battle of the Napoleonic Wars which made a hero of Lord Horatio Nelson. Another farmed clash of arms in that was against France was the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 - hence Waterloo Place.
English Street possibly emphasises the subject bias of the developers. Other names from English history books can be found on street signs such as Stirling, Blenheim, Tudor and Salisbury.
Hurlstone Avenue is a tribute to the famous school, located west of the railway.
Hurlstone Agricultural High School was established in 1906 near Sydney - the suburb of Hurlstone Park gets its name from the school. To escape the urban sprawl, Hurlstone was relocated to Glenfield in 1926, but retained its old name. The school was designed to prepare students for farm work, and for most of its life was a bastion of male learning. It wasn't until 1979 that the high school's first female students were admitted.
Roy Watts Road gets its name from a "distinguished old boy" of Hurlstone who began his studies there in 1929. He achieved an outstanding record in academic and sport, and went on to Sydney University. By the late 1930s he was an officer with the Department of Agriculture, and from 1965-80 was NSW Director of Agriculture. As a mark of respect, the road running past the school was named after him.
Glenfield Progress Hall was constructed in 1925 with money loaned by C.C. Kennett.
Magee Lane is a memorial to Isabella Magee, who ran the Glenfield Post Office from 1901 to 1954. In that year, the job was taken up by her daughter, Isobell, who retired in 1962.
Further toward the river, Georges Road, which began its life as "St Georges Parade", was declared a public road in 1958. It was heavily used as an access road by sand miners.
Cambridge Avenue was built in the early 1980's to replace the old Cambridge Avenue - remains of which can still be seen behind Fergusson and Goodenough Streets.
In 1926, the local newspapers referred to it as an "unnamed road leading from Canterbury road to the Georges River" through the middle of farmland owned by the Kennett family. "The road is very pretty...but there is not a track right or left to the water when you get there," it was reported.
When the army built a low level bridge over the river, connecting Glenfield to Holsworthy Army Camp, it became known as "Military Road". In 1948 the army agreed to allow the public to drive across the bridge as a short cut to Sydney. Local motorists quickly took this for granted and when the army suddenly closed the road again in late 1957, there was outrage. Vocal protests by Campbelltown Council led to the road being re-opened in less than a month.
By 1971 the estimated population of Glenfield was only 1500. Even as late as 1974, the local press featured stories on the poultry and pig farms at the back of the village.
But development was coming. The early 1970's saw a host of new estates spring up in the east, creating almost 60 street. A town planner involved in the development had earlier been a patrol officer in Papua New Guinea, so the Council - which had been in search of a theme - decided to name the new roads and street after locations that can be found within the island nation to our north.
The main thoroughfare were therefore called Owen Stanley Road, Popondetta Place, Bougainville Road, and Trobriand Crescent. These noted the Owen Stanley mountain range, the town of Popondetta, Bougainville Island and the Trobriand Islands.
Some other names that can be found include Goodenough Bay, Mount Hagan, Manus Island, Woodlark Island, Cape Gazelle, Bensbach River, the Calvados chain of Isles and Fergusson Island. Also noted is the Kokoda Trail where Australian soldiers halted the Japanese advance in 1942.
In March 1975, work started on a bridge over Bunbury-Curran Creek, linking Canterbury Road to Harold Street in Macquarie Fields.
Glenwood Public School, (named after a subdivision from the 1880's) opened in 1986.
And after 30 years of promises the East Hills to Glenfield rail link was opened in December 1987, cutting 20 minutes off the trip to Sydney.
Hammondville - Voyager Point - Pleasure Point is an established residential area with a military area in the south-east. Hammondville - Voyager Point - Pleasure Point is bounded by the South Western Motorway in the north, the Georges River in the east and Heathcote Road in the south and west. Hammondville is named after Canon Hammond, who established a ‘self help’ community in the area during the depression of the 1930s. Voyager Point is named in memory of the navy personnel who lost their lives in the HMAS Voyager tragedy.
Settlement of the area dates from the late 1800s. Some growth took place in the 1930s, when a settlement for destitute families was established. Significant development did not occur until the post-war years, with rapid growth during the 1970s. The population increased from the mid 1990s, a result of new dwellings being added to the area.
Major features of the area include Hammondville Park, Lieutenant Cantello Reserve, the Georges River and one school.
Heckenberg is an established residential area. Heckenberg is bounded by North Liverpool Road in the north, Elizabeth Drive in the east and Heckenberg Avenue and St Johns Road in the south and west. Heckenberg is thought to be named after William Heckenberg, an early settler in the area.
Settlement of the area dates from the mid 1800s. Significant development did not occur until the 1960s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined slightly since the early 1990s, a result of relative stability in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Mannix Park, Whitlam Park and one school.
Hinchinbrook is a relatively recent residential area. Hinchinbrook is bounded by South Liverpool Road in the north, Banks Road in the east, Hoxton Park Road in the south and Cowpasture Road in the west. Hinchinbrook is named after the Hinchinbrook Creek which flows through the area. It was originally known as Woodside.
Settlement of the area dates from the early 1800s, with land used mainly for orchards, vineyards and dairy farms. Significant development did not occur until the 1980s. Rapid growth continued in the early 1990s, then slowed from 1996. The population increased marginally between 2001 and 2006, a result of some new dwellings being added to the area.
Major features of the area include Hoxton Park Reserve, Hoxton Park Golf Driving Range and a number of schools.
Horningsea Park is a recent residential area with some industrial areas in the east. Horningsea Park is bounded by Kurrajong Road in the north, Cabramatta Creek in the east, Camden Valley Way in the south and Cowpasture Road in the west. Horningsea Park is named after a historically significant estate in the area, Horningsea Park House.
Settlement of the area dates from the 1800s, with land used mainly for farming. Significant development did not occur until the late 1990s. Rapid growth took place between 1996 and 2001, with growth slowing from 2001, a result of a significant number of new dwellings being added to the area.
Hoxton Park is a relatively recent residential area. Hoxton Park is bounded by Hoxton Park Road in the north, Cabramatta Creek in the east, Kurrajong Road in the south and Cowpasture Road in the west.
Settlement of the area dates from the 1800s, with land used mainly for farming. Significant development did not occur until the early 1990s. Rapid growth took place during the 1990s, with growth slowing substantially from 2001.
Major features of the area include Brownes Farm Reserve and a number of schools.
If you claim to know the true reason why Ingleburn got its name, it's odds-on you'll get an argument in return. Because everyone seems to have a different story.
One version suggests it was named after an English farm or town by Richard Atkins, Judge-Advocate of the early colony and owner of Denham Court. A more common tale says the "Ingleburn" title was coined by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. This comes from the fact inge means "bend" and burn means "stream" in the Gaelic tongue. Macquarie was born and bred in the Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlands and from 1810-22 made several visits to both the Georges River and Bunbury-Curran Creek - which both flow through the area with many curves and bends.
We do know for sure that the site of Ingleburn was originally known as "Soldier Flat". This was because four old soldiers of the NSW Corps were allowed to take up farm grants there in 1809. These men were William Hall, William Neale, Joshua Alliot and Timothy Loughlin.By 1826, Neale's 80-acre (30ha) grant was owned by an ex-convict called David Noonan who also purchased other sites, building up a farm of 193 acres (77ha) on the modern location of Ingleburn's town centre. Mary Ruse - the daughter of famous pioneer James Ruse - was Noonan's housekeeper and purchased the farm for herself in 1841.
As early as 1869, a rail platform had been built on the old Neale grant under the name Macquarie Fields Station. This was in tribute to the huge Macquarie Field property that lay to the north. But the year 1881 saw part of this property subdivided to become the new village of Macquarie Fields. Confusion resulted and it was decided to find another name for the platform. So in August 1883, a new name of Ingleburn Station became official, called after the nearby house. And when a village later evolved around this site, it adopted the station's name. Simple.
Whatever the case, the nucleus of Ingleburn township was born in 1885 when a large slice of land west of Bunbury-Curran Creek was purchased by an auctioneer and developer from Sydney call FitzStubbs, who resold in small portions. And with the residential subdivision came a host of new streets and names.
Ingleburn Road noted, of course, the old house and platform name. Most other streets honoured English localities and counties such as Chester Road, Cumberland Road, Cambridge Street,Oxford Road, Suffolk Street, Carlisle Street and Norfolk Street.Even Raglan Avenue, Belford Street, Salford Street and Phoenix Avenue were probably named under this theme as there are towns called Raglan, Belford, Salford and Phoenix Green in England. Macquarie Road noted the early Governor of NSW, while Redfern Street recalled Dr William Redfern, the owner of Campbellfield estate, from which a part of the township was subdivided (see Minto).
The Duke of Wellington, one of England's greatest military heroes, is almost certainly the target of Wellington Avenue, while Ivanhoe Street may recall the classic novel by Sir Walter Scott. Sackville Street is another old thoroughfare, although where the name came from is uncertain. (It is interesting to note that some 1920s newspapers referred to it as "Sagville Street".)Many of the remaining roads in the old town subdivisions appear to list Christian names - Gordon, James, Albert, Brenda, Rupert, Aubrey and Lionel. Whether they were early subdividers or family names remains to be discovered.
But the theme seems to have been a popular choice. An early rural subdivision a kilometre from the railway station called The Glen estate created Percy Street and Gertrude Road. It was described by agents as "a beautiful romantic spot suitable for country residence, fruit or vine growing, or poultry" within the "rapidly improving district of Ingleburn". Lyndia Street was later formed nearby as well.
New families began arriving and new homes to house then were built. Within only a few years a thriving village had evolved and Ingleburn Public School opened in 1887, followed by a post office in 1889. William Collins was the first postmaster and storekeeper. He and his well-known family were later honoured by the naming of Collins promenade.
Ingleburn's most impressive home was Milton Park. This was built in 1882 for hotelier David Warby. By 1909 it was owned by Thomas Hilder, manager of the silver mines at Yerranderie in the Burragorang Valley. Later this century it fell into disrepair and the owner, Campbelltown Council, demolished it in 1992 after being unable to secure a financial offer for the building. A large sporting complex that now adjoins the old house site is called Milton Park. This forms part of the long band of parks that now stretch from the railway line to the Georges River. Alderman Greg Percival, who spearheaded this concept, aimed to create a "green belt" between Macquarie Fields and Ingleburn.
Ingleburn Reserve, alongside the river, appears to have been dedicated as early as 1870, and was certainly a popular picnic ground for residents by the 1920s.
Development of the township increased after World War II and in the fifties, Ingleburn's population passed the 2000 mark. When an ultra-modern Hotel Ingleburn opened for business in 1955, the local press insisted the community's future was assured. "The confidence of the many builders who have erected or are erecting the many up-to-date premises now gracing the town", was held up by the newspaper as evidence.
Rivalry with Campbelltown became an important source of motivation. When that southern town got its own public high school in 1956, it was only a matter of time before the rising settlement of the north got one as well. Although lessons for pupils were held at Macquarie Fields Public School from 1960, a proper Ingleburn High School finally opened on Oxford Road in 1963.
Images of Australiana rose to the surface in the late 1950s, when new streets like Blue Gum Avenue and Koala Avenue had a distinct "dinkum" flavour. Green images became popular in the early sixties, resulting in Treelands Avenue, Park Street, Banksia Place and Orchard Place.
There was also expansion south of Chester Road, where open farm paddocks were slowly swallowed by new homes. As these estates were near the old Gertrude and Percy Street subdivision of the 19th Century, new streets adopted Christian names as well, to maintain a "continuity" of sorts. The result was a jumble of names including Desmond, Bradley, Myra, Roma, Edna, Ellen, Valda, Karen, Kylie, Rodney, Rebecca, Amanda, Enid, Sandra, Fiona, Kim, Clifford, Hazel, Irene and Brett. These were development throughout the 1970s and as recently as 1991 Council approved the name Michael Place for a new street. (Nearby Sackville Street Public School was opened in 1977 and named after its street address).
Ingleburn was outraged in 1973 when a Daily Mirror article described it as a "wasteland" dominated by "ugliness, lack of amenities and boredom". The following year plans for the suburb's long-term development were finally exhibited. Parts of this "blueprint" have never been realised, such as the proposal to close Oxford Street at the town centre and turn it into a pedestrian mall. But many other ground plans have come to fruition, such as the massive new housing subdivisions.
The first of these estates was developed between 1974 and 1979, north of Chester Road. But as almost 60 streets were to be created, Council searched for a theme that would provide an endless list of names. And the answer was birds.
The main thoroughfares - named after our feathered friends - became Warbler Avenue, Lorikeet Avenue, Currawong Street, Kingfisher Street, Oriole Place, Wagtail Crescent and Kookaburra Street. A random selection of some of the surrounding street names would include the Magpie, Falcon, Lark, Ibis, Dove, Egret, Kestrel, Swift, Heron, Miner, Jacana, Honeyeater, Lyrebird, Whistler, Fantail, Swallow, Sitella, Brolga, Swan, Owl and Quail.
This estate, now considered a well-established "old" section of the suburb, surrounds both Ingleburn High School and the Holy Family Catholic Primary School, which opened in 1982. In December 1975, the Housing Commission had announced it was preparing a new estate in "South Ingleburn". The streets created were to recall Mayors who had held office on the former Ingleburn Council.
Today, street names in this small estate near Bunbury-Curran Creek recall George Barff (who was first mayor and held the title from 1896-1901), Patrick Scanlen (1903-04), William Piggot (1904-06 and in 1907-08), Percy Lucas (1906-07 and in 1908-12), and Arthur Harper (1919-21).
When it became clear private estates would be developed nearby in the following years, Council decided in 1978 to "extend this theme".
The result recognised former Mayors George Naylor (1931-32), George Hopping (1932) and Harry Bainbridge (1939-40). Some aldermen who served on the old council are now honoured by Mahon Court, Hodkin Place, Luff Place and McInnes Place.
It seems unfair that the Percival name has never been honoured. Syd Percival was Ingleburn Mayor from 1901-03 and his grandson, Greg, was Campbelltown Mayor from 1959-61. Another to miss out was henry Chivers, who was Mayor for a marathon term of 10 years from 1921-31. Streets developed east of Cumberland Road paid tribute to some of the more prominent early Ingleburn landholders - Livingstone, Svensden, Cox, Keats, Thorne and Stubbs.
The completion of these new estates was supposed to herald the end of Ingleburn's growth. This was because the land between the Georges River and Collins Promenade was meant to become a entirely different suburb called "Caley". This name aimed to recognise the early colonial botanist and explorer, George Caley (1770-1829), who made an expedition along the Georges River in 1805, mapping a section of its course nearby.
But the Caley name met stiff opposition when it was mooted in 1975. Mainly from old-time residents (such as the former Mayor Clive Tregear) who lived in the subject area and wanted to retain their Ingleburn address. In the end they won and Caley was scrapped. As a result, Ingleburn is today one of the largest suburbs in the city area.
The late 1970s saw plans drawn up to develop housing estates on this old "Caley" site. The first roads had been built and homes erected by the early 1980s, and searching for yet another street theme, Council chose "famous names associated with the automobile industry".
Main roads became Lancia Drive, Lagonda Drive, Bugatti Drive, Mercedes Road, Maserati Drive and Peugeot Drive. In all, almost 50 names were approved. Some of these included Fiat, Ferrari, Cadillac, Ford, Alfa, Renault, Rambler, Vauxhall, Buick, Leyland, Delaunay, Daimler and Stutz. Pontiac Place, Chevrolet Place and Oldsmobile Place were formed from the old route of Kings Road, which had been blocked at Fields Road.
Taking the suburb's population into account, Ingleburn was now only outsized by Campbelltown. But this chapter has only yet looked east of the railway. It should be remembered that almost half its total area lies west of the line - Ingleburn Industrial Area and Ingleburn Army Camp.
Both are relatively modern phenomena, having engulfed dairy farms and early residential estates which were once considered an integral part of the township Stanley Street, York Street, Lancaster Street and Liverpool Street are all old tracks, and like the other side of the railway line, followed a theme of English locations or Christian names.
As early as 1919, the local newspaper noted that returned soldiers from World War I were employed in the formation and gravelling of these streets - in then called Railway Estate - "clearing off timber and scrub".
Aero Road was the main thoroughfare and stretched from the railway to Denham Court. It was named after the old Aero Estate (also known as Blomfield Estate). The Blomfields were descendants of pioneer landowner, Captain Richard Brooks (see Denham Court).
In the 1920s, much of these paddocks were sliced into a housing subdivision marketed as Aero Estate. Advertisements in April 1927 boasted it was "right at station" and buyers could chose between one, three and five acre lots from 30 pounds and acre. Within years, new homes began to surround Memorial Park, which had been established in 1924 as a tribute to the diggers of World War 1.
Additional portions of this estate continued to be developed well into the late 1950s. What was once called Denham Court Road became Memorial Avenue (as it skirted the park). The sections of Chester Road, Suffolk Street and Norfolk Street west of the railway were renamed Devon Road, Cobham Street and Norwich Road, after English localities.
New roads created in the 1950s also used a first name theme - Louise Avenue and Annette Avenue.
But the residents who settled in Aero Estate would pay dearly for being on the "wrong" side of Ingleburn's tracks. The area became a battlefield of sorts in October 1969 when Campbelltown Council announced plans to rezone the entire area for light industry.
This sparked hostile protests. "The residents of this area, consisting of retired couples who have chosen a considered peaceful area for the purpose of raising their families, now find this area to be rezoned, when there is no good reason for such a preposterous recommendation," a petition stated.
Given the public opposition, the plan was dropped, but was resurrected only a decade later when the Council overruled objections and approved light industry. In the 1990s, this area is known as the "old" section of the industrial area.
Aero Road was blocked off (becoming a minor road) and in 1987 a new road bridge over the railway connected with Williamson Road. This allowed the level crossing to be closed. Old Aero Road (winding up the hill to Denham Court) was renamed as Macdonald Road.
Both Williamson Road and Macdonald Road had been approved as names by Council in 1977, honouring some early landholders. Other local family names since honoured in the vast industrial zone include Henderson, Kerr, Stennett, Boardhurst, Inglis, Benson, Slater, Heald, Shaw and Bosci. Moorelands Road pays tribute to a nearby property that was owned by the Kerr family.
It was in 1939 that Ingleburn Army Camp was created on more than 600 acres (240ha) of the old Blomfield land, and was used throughout World Ware II for training military units and reinforcements.
The 1st Battalion RAR returned to Ingleburn after duties in Japan, and in March 1952 left there to go to Korea. The 1st Signal Regiment arrived in 1960 and became so involved in the town that in 1968 the Council awarded it the "Freedom of the City". The military hospital was kept busy at the time, caring for troops wounded in the Vietnam War. The camp is now home to the army's 101 Field Workshop.
Streets within the camp not only note early explorers such as Hume, Hovell, Leichhardt, Henty, Flinders, Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth, but also recalled the "old country" with England Road and Scotland Road. Besides old Ingleburn Reserve, Milton Park and Memorial Park (all mentioned previously in the text), there are a number of parks that pay tribute to the suburb's pioneering clans.
Westland Memorial Park was created out of the property of Mrs Westland, who lived in the historic homestead known at The Pines. Wood Park stands on old farm owned by the Wood family early this century. Symonds Reserve recalls John and Olive Symonds, while Digger Black Reserve notes a well-known footballer and bowls champ of the 1950s. The Black family were early milk vendors in the town. Hallinan Park notes the town's first resident medico, Dr Geoff Hallinan, who ran a local practice between the 1950s and 1980s.
"Campbelltown's Streets and Suburbs - How and why they got their names" written by Jeff McGill, Verlie Fowler and Keith Richardson, 1995, published by Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society "
The suburb of Kearns gets its name from a local farmer who was involved in a scandalous court case which rocked the morals of the early colony.
In 1824, William Kearns - who owned a large property on the fringe of the Scenic Hills - was sued for damages after he seduced a 14 year old girl.
The girl was the daughter of Joseph Ward, caretaker of the nearby St Andrews estate. The year before, Ward had left for England, leaving behind his wife and children.
On his return, Ward found his daughter, Mary Ann, was pregnant to Kearns. Yet just two months before the baby was due to be born, Kearns had married another woman.
However, that was not the scandal. Behaviour of this type was all too common in early New South Wales.
The legal case sparked by the drama only achieved notoriety when it was discovered that Ward had returned to Sydney with an English wife, bluntly disowned his Australian wife, and had tried to sell his English-born daughter to an American ship's captain. This behaviour was described by the Chief Justice as "inhuman".
In the end, Kearns was found guilty, but ordered to pay damages of only £17 - well below the £1000 claimed by Ward.
The farmer survived the scandal and he and his wife, Elizabeth, went on to become prosperous farmers and prominent citizens of the area.
Kearns' property had originally been held by his two brothers, Matthew and John, who had each been granted 100 acres off Raby Road in the 1820s. The headwaters of the Bunbury Curran Creek flowed through the undulating site, so it was called River Hill.
By the time of the 1828 census, William was listed as holder of the property, and it eventually expanded - by the purchase of adjoining grants - to 360 acres (144ha). As well as a dairy, the estate boasted grain crops and an orchard.
Over half the land was still forested at the time, which accounts for the name that William gave to his holdings - Epping Forest.
Frances Pollon of the Royal Australian Historical Society has suggested "Epping" means "people of the look-out place", possibly referring to an ancient hill fort on a ridge in Epping Forest, England. It certainly seems an apt name for the local farm, established on the high ridges on what was then a heavily timbered countryside.
It is worth noting that private tutor to the Kearns children was William Francis King - who went on to achieve fame as the colourful "flying pieman".
Bedecked in open shirt, blue jacket, reddish breeches, white stockings and shoes, wearing a top hat and coloured streamers, he was a legendary street character of Sydney in the 1840s, wandering about selling pies.
He wagered many bets on bizarre walking feats, one of which was walking from the Kearns residence to Sydney carrying a large dog.
When William Kearns died in 1880, he left the farm to his children, John and Elizabeth, who continued its operation. But when John died in 1896, Epping Forest was inherited by his nephew, John Clark.
Clark's knowledge of breeding cattle was second to none and his advice was often sought by locals until his death in 1933. The property remained in the hands of the Clark family until 1978.
Three years earlier, Campbelltown Council had been busy preparing for the urban growth that was predicted to hit the area. It suggested any new suburb developed on Clark land should be called "Bunbury", in honour of the Bunbury-Curran Creek. (Sir Henry Bunbury had been Under Secretary of War from 1809-16, and was a regular correspondent of Macquarie.) But there were objections to this name, amid claims it would be far more appropriate to call the suburb "Epping Forest". This proved a popular choice with everyone bar the Geographical Names Board, which rejected it. The GNB claimed the address may be confused with the Sydney suburb of Epping.
As a compromise, the name "Kearns Forest" began to be mooted, but this was streamlined to "Kearns" and approved in 1976. (The main roads through the suburb have since been named Kearns Avenue and Epping Forest Drive to recall the pioneers and estate name.)
Housing development in the area didn't start until the mid 1980s, but Council decided to choose a "theme" for street names in October 1980. Capital cities of the World was initially offered as an idea, but it failed to impress many aldermen and was dumped.
The suggestion eventually backed by Council was "Saints", with Kearns street names to recall not just famous names like St Peter, but also more obscure men of God like St Perpetua, St Ploycarp and St Sylvester.
But West Coast Developments, which by April 1983 was busy planning homes for the new suburb, did not share Council's enthusiasm. West Coast asked Council to change the theme to "International Rivers", possibly with the early property name of River Hill in mind.
Council agreed, hence today's maze of 50-odd streets boasting names such as Mississippi Crescent, Danube Crescent, Yangtze Place, St Lawrence Avenue, Euphrates Place, Thames Place, Columbia Street, Loire Place, Amazon Place and Gambia Street.
It is interesting to note that some river names offended the alderman and were deliberately left out, such as Po and Snake.
June 1985 saw the launch of the "prestige" Macarthur Park housing estate at Kearns. "Substantial areas of open space and a seven acre school site have been set aside for the estate," the Macarthur Advertiser reported.
Kearns Public School was opened in June 1992 next to the shopping centre.
Clarke Reserve recalls the family who had once farmed the area, while Jemima Jenkins Reserve is named after the woman who once owned nearby Eschol Park House.
With its elaborate mansions and bushland setting, Kentlyn enjoys a lifestyle of the rich and famous image. It hasn’t always been that way though. The suburb's first settlers were actually battling farmers and starving families left destitute by the Great Depression of the 1930s.
From the earliest days of the colony the Kentlyn bush was mostly uninhabited except for a handful of land grants given out. The Kentlyn area was actually called ‘Campbelltown Common’ and provided temporary grazing and firewood. In 1894 Kentlyn was opened up for selection by small farmers where the Longhurst clan were amongst the first to claim their ‘piece of dirt’. Shortly afterwards, three old land grants in the area were privately subdivided by a Sydney developer. This estate was then promoted as the ‘Kent Farms’ and by 1920 the entire area was officially known as the Kent Farms. This name also encompassed modern Ruse and Airds.
In 1933 a vote was taken to give the area a formal title. From a list of suggestions ‘Kent Lyn’ was chosen. By the end of the decade ‘Kent Lyn’ was being described as ‘Kentlyn’ in the local papers. Many of the suburbs earlier roads were actually formed during the depression of the 1890s. The main thoroughfare has always been Georges River Road, but was also known at one stage as the ‘National Park Road’.
Freres Road led to the old property of French-born George Frere, who was responsible for the growing of vineyards in the area. The army now occupies his land and the remains of the old bridge has been a popular picnic spot.
With the onslaught of the Great Depression in the 1930s many families came from everywhere and built makeshift homes in the bush and did their best to survive. Campbelltown Council gave the men work 2 days a week building roads in the area. Some of the street names depict this depression era including Coral Avenue, Smith Road and Harrison Road. Kentlyn always boasted a keen community spirit with many of its facilities all being built through fundraising efforts, including the local school that was opened in 1937.
With the population explosion of the 1970s Kentlyn was declared a ‘scenic protection’ zone with a minimum lot size of five acres. This converted the bushland area into some of the most expensive and sought after real estate properties in the city. Many of the old battler families sold up, being replaced by a new bread of resident – doctors, pharmacists, executives and business/professional people.
If the Honourable John Davies had got his way, the suburb of Leumeah may today be called "Holly Lea". After all, this was the name the wily politician bestowed on the nearby railway platform when it was built in 1887.
But the name infuriated the surrounding farmers. Mrs Eliza Rudd felt so strongly about it she defaced the platform sign.
The main problem was that Davies had arrogantly called it after his own family homestead, Holly Lea (which still stands nearby). Quite a bold move for such a johnny-come-lately, who had only moved into the area three years earlier.
Local residents argued the platform name should instead honour pioneer settler, John Warby, whose old land grant of Leumeah stood to the south. By the 1880s, it was owned by influential Joseph and Eliza Rudd.
Like any career politician, Davies no doubt recognised the public mood and quickly had "Leumeah" signs erected along the platform.
John Warby is regarded as the "founding father" of Leumeah. He was transported as a convict in 1792 and ten years later was appointed as a constable to protect the famous wild cattle of the Cow Pastures. In this role he forged a close friendship with the Tharawals and when he was granted 260 acres (104ha) on Bow Bowing Creek in 1816, Warby named his estate after the Aboriginal phrase for "Here I Rest".
This property straddled what is now the border of Campbelltown and Leumeah. His house was demolished in 1963, but his old stable and barn still exist - although there is some confusion over which is which. The stable is home to "The Barn Restaurant", while the barn is part of the "Colonial Motor Inn". Warby lived on Leumeah until his death in 1851.
Parish maps show other early land grantees included James Fletcher, William Kitson, William Ray and Jeremiah Smith. Of these, none left any lasting titular impact, except possibly for the latter, for it's believed Smiths Creek got its name from Jeremiah, whose original land grant enveloped the waterway.
By the late 19th Century, the area was still only thinly sprinkled with signs of civilisation. Thick bushland dominated the eastern slopes, while to the north of Smiths creek lay the hilly grazing land of Campbellfield Estate.
Pembroke Road, stretching south from Minto, was one of the earliest thoroughfares, and like other roads in that suburb, it was named after a member of English aristocracy. The main roadway to Campbelltown was called Rudd Road, in honour of the family which farmed the surrounding fields.
Angle Road began its life as "Angle Lane" and was a narrow path leading from the railway to the Soldier Settlement at Campbelltown East. It probably gained its name from the way it trailed up the hillside. In April 1960 "Lane" was dropped.
August 1926 saw the first major land subdivision of Leumeah, with 320 acres (128ha) placed on the market by John Patrick King, whose family had by then acquired most of the area.
"This magnificent estate, formerly the home of the well known Rudd family, has been subdivided into 119 allotments comprising business sites near the station, large home allotments (and) choice farmlets up to seven acres in area," the estate advertisements claimed.
A King Street was shown on early estate maps - recognising the subdividers - but this soon caused confusion as there was already a street by that name in Campbelltown. So it was renamed Kingsclare Street. The other major road noted the harbourside address of the King family home in Rose Bay - O'Sullivan Road.
Hughes Street, was thought to have been named after a local family.
Yet the expected land buyers did not eventuate and only a fraction of the farmlets were sold. By July 1927, the development syndicate had placed the estate "on hold" and fenced the area so it could be leased for grazing.
The Great Depression did little to encourage growth and it wasn't until 1935 that the subdivision was marketed again. And this time around it met far more enthusiasm from buyers.
Leumeah Progress Association was formed in 1944 and at the start of the 1950s, it asked Campbelltown Council to find a suitable site for a park. About 12 acres (5ha) was acquired and named Orana Park, an Aboriginal word for "Welcome".
In 1970 it became the home ground of the Campbelltown Kangaroos Rugby League team, and modernised as Campbelltown's best sports complex. By 1987, it was home of the Western Suburbs Magpies and three years later, was renamed Campbelltown Sportsground.
By the mid-1950s, proposals to increase the size of Leumeah village, by converting farmlets into suburban lots, were scoffed at by aldermen. The forerunner of the State Planning Authority, Cumberland County Council, agreed and in 1957 it limited the allowable village area to sites near the railway line and Rudd Road.
So it was in this area that the earliest suburban estates were developed. By November 1959, the Campbelltown Ingleburn News noted a "mushrooming of houses" on farm land once owned by the Whitten family.
Kath Whitten was a member of the NSW Egg Board and would later be Campbelltown's Mayor from 1961-62. Asked to name a street created by the subdivision, the family jokingly offered "Egg Board Avenue". Council eventually chose the title Kulgoa Street.
Maybe nearby Fitzroy Crescent was named in honour of the early NSW Governor, Sir Charles Fitzroy, and Forbes Place after Sir Frances Forbes, the colonial Chief Justice who advocated the jury system.
The biggest developments came after March 1959, when a large slice of the village's rural backblocks were converted to a "residential" zoning.
However, there was still no Council policy for naming new streets and it seems developers made all the choices. And almost four decades down the track, we can only guess at their motivations.
Turimetta Avenue, Tallowarra Road, Teralba Road, and Tahlee Crescent all note Aboriginal words. This naming theme was probably chosen to highlight the fact it was the Turimetta company that was developing the estate.
Western Rural comprises the rural balance of Liverpool City, including some rural-residential areas. Western Rural is bounded by Penrith and Fairfield Cities in the north, Cowpasture Road and the western extent of development of the suburb of Cecil Hills in the east, the suburbs of Austral and West Hoxton in the south and Wollondilly Shire in the west. Western Rural includes the localities of Badgerys Creek (part), Bringelly (part), Cecil Park (part), Cecil Hills (part), Greendale, Kemps Creek (part), Luddenham (part), Middleton Grange (part), Rossmore (part) and Wallacia (part).
Settlement of the area dates from the early 1800s when land was settled in Badgerys Creek, Greendale, Luddenham and Rossmore and used primarily for farming and cattle grazing. The most significant development occurred during the 1970s. The population increased slightly during the 1990s, then declined marginally between 2001 and 2006, a result of little change in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size. The non-urban areas are characterised by farms, orchards and vineyards. Population growth is expected in the future, largely from development north of McIver Road in Middleton Grange.
Major features of the area include Sydney International Shooting Centre, RAAF Telecommunications Unit Sydney, Parklands Trial Track, University of Sydney John Bruce Pye Farm, Bents Basin State Recreation Area, Gulguer Nature Reserve, Kemps Creek Nature Reserve, Rossmore Grange and numerous schools.
Liverpool is an established residential, industrial and commercial area. Liverpool is bounded by Cabramatta Creek and Lachlan Street in the north, Orange Grove Road and the railway line in the east, the South Western Motorway in the south and Trotters Creek in the west.
Liverpool is named after the Earl of Liverpool, who at the time was the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Settlement of the area dates from 1810, being one of the oldest areas of settlement within Liverpool City. Growth took place in the mid 1800s, following the opening of the railway line in 1856. Significant development occurred during the post-war years. The population has increased since the early 1990s, a result of new dwellings being added to the area, particularly medium density housing.
Major features of the area include the Liverpool CBD, Westfield Shoppingtown Liverpool, Liverpool Plaza Shopping Centre, TAFE NSW South Western Sydney Institute (Liverpool College), Liverpool Hospital, Sydney Southwest Private Hospital, Liverpool City Netball Centre, Whitlam Leisure Centre, Liverpool Cemetery, Bigge Park, Woodward Park and numerous schools.
Lurnea is an established residential area. Lurnea is bounded by Hoxton Park Road in the north, Calabro Avenue and Liverpool Street in the east, the South Western Motorway and Bligh Avenue in the south and Wonga Road in the west. Lurnea is thought to be named from an Aboriginal word meaning “platypus” or “resting place”.
Development of the area dates primarily from the 1950s and 1960s. The population has been relatively stable since the early 1990s, a result of some new dwellings being added, but a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Amalfi Memorial Park and a number of schools.
The original inhabitants of the Macquarie Fields area were the Darug people of western Sydney. The rich soil of the area was home to an abundance of plants which in turn attracted animals such as kangaroos and emus, both of which along with yams and other native vegetables and fruit were part of the diet of the Darug. They lived in small huts called gunyahs, made spears, tomahawks and boomerangs for hunting and had an elaborate system of tribal law and rituals with its origins in the Dreamtime. However, following the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, they were pushed off their land by the British settlers.
Macquarie Fields was named by early landholder James Meehan in honour of the Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie. The area was surveyed by Meehan in the early 19th century. Although transported to Australia as a convict for his role in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Meehan had trained as a surveyor in Ireland and in 1803 was appointed assistant to NSW Surveyor-General Charles Grimes. In 1806 he was granted a full pardon and in 1810 became Surveyor-General. For his work, he was granted a number of parcels of land including 2,020 acres (8.2 km2) in what is now Macquarie Fields and neighbouring suburbs. He used the rich soil to grow cereal crops, fruit trees and to graze livestock. In 1883, then owner William Phillips subdivided the land to create a new town he called Glenwood Estate with grand boulevards and fine buildings. A railway station was added to the line in 1888 but the depression of the 1890s meant the grand town failed to materialise with only a few small houses built on the lots. In the next Great Depression of the 1930s, the area became popular with the homeless who made makeshift huts not unlike those of the earlier Darug people.
After World War II, the village grew steadily. A public school was opened in 1958 and by 1971, the population reached 3700. Around this time, a large Housing Commission development was built on the east side of town. This led to a huge population growth and there was even talk of splitting the suburb in two with the newer Housing Commission area taking the name Glenwood but opposition to the proposal put an end to that idea. Private housing developments sprung up further around and the weight of population contributed to a larger town centre.
James Meehan (1774-1826) was instrumental in founding the suburb of Macquarie Fields. Having been granted 2020 acres by Governor Macquarie for surveying the lands around Liverpool he purportedly named his home after the Governor in appreciation.
More information about the history of Macquarie Fields can be found in the following works available at Campbelltown City Library:
Campbelltown's Streets and Suburbs - How and why they got their names by Jeff McGill, Verlie Fowler and Keith Richardson, 1995, pub. Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society.
Campbelltown - The bicentennial history by Carol Liston 1988 pub. Allen and Unwin Australia.
Construction on the Macquarie Links estate commenced in 1996. The first gated community in the City of Campbelltown, the suburb will includes a community centre, an 18 hole golf course, clubhouse and flora and fauna reserve. The physical area of this unique community is bordered by the Bunbury Curran Creek, Ingleburn Industrial Area, the southern railway line, the Hurlstone Agricultural High School & Glenfield Park Special School and the Hume Highway. The surveyor, James Meehan, was the first European granted ownership of the land in this area of the City of Campbelltown.
Macquarie Links was officially recognised as a suburb name by the Geographical Names Board in August 1997. The name pays homage to Governor Macquarie, the fifth governor of the penal colony of New South Wales. It also recognises the heritage of nearby Macquarie Field House, built on James Meehan's grant. Meehan also named after his grant after Macquarie. The suburb name also cleverly alludes to the Scottish heritage of Governor Macquarie in the "links" of the golf course. The golf links wind gently through the new gated estate. The sport of golf developed in Scotland as early as the fifteenth century according to Encyclopedia Britannica.
The land developers, Monarch Investments, were keen to honour the significant contribution that Governor Macquarie made to the foundation, and ultimate viability of the penal colony of New South Wales. Monarch's promotional brochures for the development state, "Macquarie endeavoured 'to make this country a happy home to every emancipated convict who deserves it'....We are proud to associate Macquarie Links with the man who left such great legacy to our country and its part of our vision that Macquarie Links will be a legacy to be enjoyed by future generations"
Streets in the suburb highlight historical associations with Governor Macquarie, and his Scottish heritage. Governors Way and Macquarie Links Drive pay direct homage to Lachlan Macquarie.
Hebrides Avenue is a reference to Macquarie's birthplace on the island of Ulva, Inner Hebrides, Scotland.
Lochburie Way is believed to be named after Loch Buie/Lochbuie both a straight of water and a village on the Island of Mull, Scotland. Scaranish Way is possibly named after the town of Scarinish, on the Isle of Tiree, in the Scottish Innner Hebredes.
Lord Castlereagh Circuit honours the British secretary of state for the colonies who was instrumental in the appointment of Lachlan Macquarie as the Governor of the convict colony of New South Wales. Macquarie arrived in the store ship Dromedary, with his second wife, Elizabeth Henrietta in Sydney Harbour, 31 December 1809. His first wife Jane Jarvis had died of consumption in Macao in 1796. In 1804 Macquarie had become Laird, or owner, of the Lochbuy estate upon his uncle's death. Macquarie renamed the estate Jarvisfield in honour of his first wife.
James Meehan Way honours the man to whom Macquarie granted the land on which Macquarie Field House was later built. Meehan obviously respected Governor Macquarie. Homestead Way recognises the heritage of Macquarie Field House.
Rebellion Place is a reminder of the Rum rebellion which saw Governor Bligh dismissed as Governor of the colony and Governor Macquarie installed as his successor. During his term as governor, Macquarie commissioned many public buildings which remain today as testament to his vision for the colony. Many of them are still in Macquarie Street, Sydney. Francis Greenway, himself a convict/architect, with the help of convict labour built impressive structures such as St James Church, King Street and Hyde Park Barracks. Barrack Circuit recognises the enormous contribution Macquarie played in constructing public buildings. The pride and sense of permanence that the Governor's public works program gave colonists, boosted civic pride and prevented the lawlessness that had characterised the early years of the colony, especially during the rum rebellion. The grand public buildings of Sydney town gave the settlement a sense of community and a sense of a permanence. However, the cost of this public works scheme helped to make Macquarie rather unpopular with the colonial administrators back on England.
Forbes Avenue is most likely honouring Sir Francis Forbes who was Chief Justice of the colony from his arrival in March 1824. Strathwallen Close is a reference to William Drummond who later became Lord Strathallan, and was Macquarie's executor. He had been with Macquarie in Macao when his first wife Jane died.
Quarter Master Row is named after a rank on board sailing ships. A 'quartermaster' is a 'petty officer responsible for the steering of a ship.'
By 2006, Macquarie Links estate is nearing completion. Macquarie Links is a new suburb with historical ties to the earliest days of colonial administration in New South Wales.
Miller is an established residential area. Miller is bounded by Cartwright Avenue in the north and east, Hoxton Park Road in the south and Banks Road in the west. Miller is named after Peter Miller, an early landholder in the area.
Development dates primarily from the 1960s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined since the early 1990s, a result of relative stability in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include TAFE NSW South Western Sydney Institute (Miller College), Miller Shopping Centre, Michael Wenden Aquatic Leisure Centre, Miller Park, Powell Park and a number of schools.
It was probably an attempt by corrupt army officers to flatter the British Governor of India that led to the creation of the name "Minto".
In January 1808, officers of the then notorious NSW Corps - better known as the "Rum Corps" - deposed Governor William Bligh and took control of the colony for themselves.
Yet fearing harsh retribution from London, the officers were understandably keen to curry favour with senior government authorities. And the nearest high-ranking British official was the Earl of Minto, Gilbert Elliot Murray Kyngmount, who was Viceroy of India from 1807-1814.
So when the rebel administration opened a new farming district west of the Georges River in 1809, they named it in his honour. At the time, the districts of Upper and Lower Minto stretched form the north of Appin to Denham Court and by the end of 1809, 34 settlers had received grants there.
Most of these grants were made official when the new Governor, Lachlan Macquarie, arrived in Sydney backed up by his own Scottish regiment.
Rebel NSW Corps officers were sent back to England to face court martial, but their "Minto" appellation remained. Although its location was somewhat altered, redesignated further west near the Nepean River. Macquarie renamed the area skirting the Georges River as "Airds".In May 1811, the colony's best known physician, Dr William Redfern, was granted 800 acres (320ha) covering much of the modern-day Minto suburb. Like Campbelltown his property of Campbellfield was named after the Governor's wife, Elizabeth Campbell.
Dr Redfern, a man of great compassion and integrity, is believed to have been born in Canada about 1774, and qualified as a doctor in Britain in 1797. A closer examination of his late life will be undertaken later in this chapter.
By 1820, Redfern's Campbellfield property had greatly developed and expanded under the guidance of the aging doctor and his able young wife, Sarah. Their splendid homestead was built on a high hill overlooking the farm paddocks and Bow Bowing Creek valley. (Parts of this historic house still survive behind Minto Mall shopping centre). Campbellfield, often called "Campbellfields", became one of the finest vineyards and sheep farms in NSW, and at its peak would stretch from the modern Ingleburn to Leumeah railway station.
But the property lost much of its impetus and prestige after the much mourned death of Redfern in 1833, and Sarah's subsequent departure.
When a railway platform was built in 1874 to serve the surrounding farmlands, it was called "Campbellfields Station". It should be noted most of the population at this time actually lived on the western side of the line.
But times were changing. It was the booming 1880s, and the fused with Campbelltown, was loosing its attraction. Maybe the memory of Redfern was too distant to matter that much?
Developers and subdividers were now moving in, keen to use the railway station to push the site's potential. To this end, in February 1882, the platform was officially renamed "Minto". As well as giving the estate a new look, the title helped preserve an early district name that had almost been forgotten.
Within a year, the portion of Redfern's property closest to the station had been carved up into residential lots, creating a Minto village. Redfern Road was named after the good doctor, while Minto Road was created parallel to the railway and ran north to Ingleburn.
Possibly taking a lead for the fact that Minto was an earl, the village's streets - on both sides of the rail tracks - denoted the English aristocracy of the day.
Hence today's Pembroke Road, Stafford Road, Warwick Street, Durham Street, Derby Street, Sussex Street, Essex Street and Somerset Street.
The 1890s and first half of the 20th century saw the village continue to grow, with the addition of more streets. Victoria Road was named in honour of Queen Victoria, and Albert Street (which has now largely disappeared) after her much-mourned husband.
An early subdivision north of Minto Road created a network of streets which also only remain in small portions. And unfortunately, the motivation for their names - Memphis Street, Nelson Street and Francis Street - can only be guessed at. Maybe two of them honour the English maritime heroes Sir Horatio Nelson and Sir Francis Drake?
By 1950, several newer streets in the old village area had been also created. These were given womens' names - Blanche Street, Margaret Street and Phyllis Street. This theme appears to have been popular in the following years as well, creating Ruth Place, Christie Street, Susan Place, Lochee Avenue and Erica Place.
"In front of Minto there is a future expansion of brightness, and the expansion of the district is assured," claimed an optimistic Jubilee booklet fro m1951. But it was not a claim all residents welcomed, and many preferred to retain the village as the quiet community it was.
But Minto in the 1950s, with a population of little over 500, was hardly postcard material. A public meeting held in March 1959 described it as dilapidated and "semi-desolate".
As recently as July 1961, the local press was running headlines: "Straying stock destroy Minto gardens." But the community was close-knit and happy with its lifestyle. But this was all about to change.
In the autumn of 1969, Campbelltown Council sold a large slice of the hillside land it owned east of Pembroke Road to the NSW Housing Commission. By the time the plans for this site were released in the 1970s, major concerns were being raised by the rural minded villagers. Mainly because the Commission wasn't planning to build free-standing homes on large blocks, but rows and rows of townhouses - still a very foreign idea.
In September 1976, the CI News reported that the first 55 homes had been completed. And like Claymore, Airds and Macquarie Fields, the entire estate was to be based on the varied-curve subdivision, where all street were deliberately curved to avoid blind corners.
But the street themselves were named with history in mind. They were all based on the "theme" of William Redfern and his life.
In 1797 Redfern had been a surgeon on the ship Standard at the Mutiny at the Nore. He was accused of encouraging the crew to revolt and was therefore sentenced to death. But due to his youth, this was commuted to transportation for life. As a convict, Redfern arrived in Sydney on the Minorca in 1801.
Soon after, he was sent to Norfolk Island where he served as assistant surgeon and won a full pardon in 1803, he was appointed NSW assistant surgeon. Returning to Sydney on the Estramina in 1808, he was appointed NSW assistant surgeon. As Redfern possessed no evidence of his qualifications he was successfully examined by three senior surgeons (including William Bohan). From1816, Redfern served at the Rum Hospital, working under the guidance of Dr D'Arcy Wentworth.
Redfern was assisted by an apprentice, James Shears. He also ran a busy private practice and was the family doctor of Governor Macquarie.
In 1811, Redfern had been granted his land grant in the area originally named after the Earl, Gilbert Kyngmount. The doctor married Sarah Wills.
Redfern's investigations into the high mortality rate on convict transports such as the General Hewitt led to better conditions. Redfern expected to succeed Wentworth as principal surgeon in 1818, but London appointed James Bowman to the post instead. Disappointed Redfern resigned.
Redfern began devoting more and more time to his Campbellfield farm, and others like Wangoola near Bathurst.
In 1821, he returned to London to lobby against laws curbing the freedom of former convicts. His health deteriorated and before his return to NSW, he spent some time at Madeira recuperating. There he collected vines and fruit trees and returned to Campbellfield to plant them.
In 1828, Redfern took his son William to Edinburgh to be educated, setting sail on the Orelia, Sarah remained in the colony with another son, but she was never to see her husband again. He died in 1833 and was buried at New Calton cemetery in Scotland.
Medical practitioners included William Balmain, Thomas Arndell, and Thomas Jamison, who popularised new protections against small pox introduced by Dr Edward Jenner in England. Other colonial surgeons were Edward Lutterell, James Mileham, William Sherwin and William Walker.
Workers on the Campbellfield estate included James Evans, Thomas Besford, John Gee, William Crocket, Themes Barratta, Patrick Hammal, Henry Durban, Bryan Moran, Brian McEliver, Richard Murphy, Hugh McCann, Patrick Mahan, Elizabeth Nicholls and John Sandeford. Redfern's land was also home to the Rachel Forster Hospital.
The new estate became a "political Football" in the state election of 1978, with the Liberal Opposition accusing the Wran ALP Government of forcing its Housing Commission tenants to live in "cramped, inadequate dwellings which lack size, quality of appeal".
The Government hit back by opening its newest townhouse development - Valley Vista - for public viewing.
By March 1980, more than 1060 homes had been built by the Commission and a new "district centre" was underway. This would include Sarah Redfern High/Primary School. Minto Mall shopping centre, playing fields, a school/public library and a hall.
Two of the new roadways built to service this "district centre" were named after old local families - Brookfield Road and Monaghan Street. A third, Mossglen Street, was after the farm of George Smith, a pioneer of the East Minto area.
Three of the main roads bisecting the Housing Commission estate itself - Pendergast Avenue, Goodwin Crescent and Mortimer Street - note early landholders John Pendergast, F.G. Goodwin and William Mortimer.
The other two roads are the remnants of 19th century farm laneways. Ben Lomond Road (Ben is Scottish for "high peak") has trailed over the hilltop toward the Georges River for well over 100 years. In 1898, the local press reported it was "in anything but a good state".Guernsey Avenue originally stretched all the way for the northern part of Minto Road to Smiths Creek. It was part of an old rural subdivision which also created three other streets named after England's Channel Islands - Sark Grove, Jersey Parade and Alderney Street. (In 1976, the southern portion of Guernsey Road became Townson Avenue after the famous local pioneer, Robert Townson.)
While the Housing Commission was busy developing its new community, private developers were also creating new housing estates to the north and south.
By 1976, Neeta Homes was developing an estate near the site of The Grange Public School (named after an early farm). At the same time, Leslie Homes was promoting its Eagleview Estate on the higher ground. In the south, most of the developments began in the 1980s, continuing well into the 1990s.
And the street name theme used across this entire area has been "the pioneers of Minto"
Some streets honour early land grantees such as Walter Collis, Paul Randall, Ed Myles, Thomas Wheeler, Luke Brennan, Peter Lillas, William Ross, John Fenton, Joseph Inch, Thomas Styles, James Underwood, James Welch, William Lane, William Kitson, James Fletcher, William Ray, John Neal (e), Richard Knight, F.A. Chaperon, Andrew Thompson, Richard Barnes, P. Keighran, D.C. Allen and R.W. Benham.
John and Phillip Sherack were vignerons, while Joseph and Brian Brial were French butchers and wool hide buyers who moved locally in the 1880s.
Christian Ohlfsen-Bagge was an engineer who had a poultry farm at Minto. His daughters taught music. John Charles Rider was a glass manufacturer, and Robert and Annie Longhurst ran a farm at East Minto.
All of these new roads have been built next to, or over the top of, older rural roads. One of the few survivors is Blackwood Road. Another is Eagleview Road, named for its obvious perspective across the valley floor.
In the early winter of 1971, the CI News reported a new 500 acre (200ha) industrial site at Minto was "well under way and starting to take shape". It continues: "The industrial site is literally being sculptured from the undulating terrain, by gigantic earth-moving machines. When completed the site will be transformed into a fully grassed, flood free modern industrial area." Bow Bowing Creek was converted into a grass lined channel.
As the first factories began to be established in 1974, Council decided to name its new roads in the industrial estate after old farm properties.
One property easily noticed on the parish maps was Stonny Batter, a 240-acre (96ha) farm owned by John Patrick, skirting the Georges River at Minto Heights.
Near by Reaghs Farm Road denotes a property at Denham Court. (The road sits just a few hundred metres away from Underwood Street - and the owner of Reaghs Farm was Joseph Underwood).Huntsmore Road, Pembury Road, Montroe Road Culverston RoadHolmes Road notes Henry Kable's property of Holmes Farm, while Cary Grove was property of William Gaudry, near the intersection of Raby Road and Camden Valley Way. and Swettenham Road all recall early Denham Court land holdings.
Merryvale Road recalls the name of nearby house, which earlier this century was known as Oakleigh. It was the home of John Westbury, Campbelltown Mayor from 1937-39. Saggart Field Road notes an agricultural settlement that existed in the early 1800s (see Bow Bowing). The main road through the estate is Airds Road, named for the early title Governor Macquarie gave the district in 1810.
Some of the larger factories to be established in the estate included Atlas Plastics in 1973, Volvo in 1975, Pirelli Cables in 1977 and the huge Lever and Kitchen factory in 1979. (The latter was dismantled in 1995).
Other industrial streets, next to Minto Railway Station, were moulded from the early subdivisions of the 1800s. It was only in the 1970s that these quiet residential streets were rezoned for industrial purposes.
For decades motorists driving along Redfern Road had been caught in an often-hectic traffic jam at the rail level crossing. This problem ended in July 1993 with the opening of the long-awaited Minto Overbridge.
To streamline the new map created by this structure, the council has since renamed the entire roadway and overpass between Pembroke Road and Campbelltown Road as Ben Lomond Road.
A small remnant of Redfern Road (west of the railway) has been renamed as Wiltshire Street, in accordance with the "English theme" chosen in 1881.
The best-known Minto reserve is without a doubt Coronation Park. Located off Redfern Road, between the railway line and Minto Public School, it was once an early common for the village.
It was described as the "local recreation green" in 1926, when a resident, Henry Tyler Moore, had been found there dead, shot in the head, with a revolver in his hand.
But as Queen Elizabeth 11 had been crowned in 1953, the Council decided in December to name the site "Coronation Park", to mark the regal event. A delighted Minto Progress Association hailed it "a most suitable name".
In August 1971, the CI News reported a new zone netball association had been formed and was lobbying for the creation of a 25-courtnetball complex. Coronation Park has since become the epicentre of that sport, drawing thousands of youngsters each week. Rose Reserve notes the famous pioneer dam-builder, Thomas Rose (see Rosemeadow). Parish maps indicate he owned land in the Minto area as well. Nearby Townson Park, like the road it joins, recalls Robert Townson (see Varroville). Etchells Reserve was named in honour of the family that helped open up the Georges River gorge country. Redfern Park pays tribute, of course, to Dr William and his young wife, while John Rider Reserve honours the pioneer glass manufacturer. Passfield Park, like the Passfield Park Special School, recalls the name given to an early rural subdivision of the Redfern property. Kayess Park notes a family that farmed the nearby paddocks prior to the 1960s. Piggott Bushland Reserve off Eagleview Road recalls one of Minto's best-known families, which owned a property on the hillside called Arcadia.
Charles Piggott's obituary in May 1928 gives us an insight into how hard life must have been for our early settlers. It was reported of Charles that:
"He started dairying and had built up a very creditable herd when the largest flood ever experienced in Minto (about 49 years ago) brought ruin to himself and his family. During the height of the rush of waters the late Mr Piggott saw that the railway line had been washed away and eminent danger was in store for the first train venturing along.
"Mr Piggott grasped the situation and, through swirling water, made for the railway line, and with a crude oil lantern prevented a train passing along. The next morning he found that his dairy herd had all been lost in the flood waters. His second effort in dairying in later years brought further lose to the Piggott family, practically the whole herd being lost through a disease which broke out in the district".
In 1952 the first Minto Show was held on the ground, and the following year the State Government handed ownership of the paddock to Council. At the time, it was called "Minto Recreation Ground".
Some of the other pioneers mentioned on street signs are Crammond, Hall, Boyer, Kidd, Haultain, Plowman, Sutton, Rushes, Cochrane, Bennett, Oprey, Hayes, Selby, Hanlon, Baker, Clark, Moffat, Norton, Borthwick, Parnell and Merryweather. More recent identities are honoured as well, such as Frederick Goodsell, who died in 1978.
Residents of Minto from the late 1800s and early 1900s have also been honoured.
Among the better-known would be the Porter family. Robert Porter, born in 1844, moved to the southern end of Eagleview Road in 1897 where he planted an orchard and with his son, operated brick pits in Minto from 1904-18.
Settlement of the area dates from the late 1800s, with land used mainly for vineyards and farming. Significant development did not occur until the post-war years. Rapid growth took place from the 1950s to the 1970s. The population has declined marginally since the early 1990s, a result of few dwellings being added and a decline in average household size.
Population growth is expected in the future, primarily from the Georges Fair development on the previous Boral Brickworks site. Major features of the area include New Brighton Golf Club, Liverpool City Hockey Complex, Moorebank Shopping Plaza, Ernie Smith Reserve and one school.
Prestons is a recent residential and industrial area. Prestons is bounded by Hoxton Park Road in the north, Wonga Road in the east, the South Western Motorway and Camden Valley Way in the south and Cabramatta Creek in the west.
Development of the area dates primarily from the late 1980s. Rapid growth took place during the 1990s, with the population quadrupling between 1996 and 2001. The population continued to increase between 2001 and 2006, but at a slower rate, a result of new dwellings being added to the area.
Major features of the area include Ash Road Sports Ground and numerous schools.
"My plea is a simple one - why the hell should a lovely suburb like Raby be saddled with such a despicable name!" So wrote a disgruntled resident in a letter to the Macarthur Advertiser in July 1993, setting in train months of public debate. "It sounds like some dangerous disease from some fetid place," the author claimed, demanding the "atrocity" be changed.
He found some support, but vocal opposition as well. "The wealth of history hidden in the names of places and landmarks of Macarthur should not be lost," insisted one reader. Another wrote: "A rose by any other name is still a rose".
So where does this controversial name come from? After all, the old Raby property of wool pioneer, Alexander Riley, stood on the other side of the Scenic Hills, in Leppington!
The answer can be found in the year 1975, when the site of the modern suburb was little more than farm paddocks, and the upper reaches of Bunbury Curran Creek flowed gently through its hills.
Campbelltown Council, busy preparing for the area's expected urban growth, suggested naming the proposed suburb "Curran" - after the creek. (It is widely believed the name came from Jack Curran, axeman and assistant to early surveyor, James Meehan).
But the idea found little support, and calls were soon being made for it to be named instead after an early farming property, like so many other Campbelltown suburbs. But here lay a big problem. Modern Raby stands on the border of two old land grants - Varroville and St Andrews. And these names had already been snatched.
So in 1976 the Geographical Names Board approved the title "Raby", using the justification that the new suburb was to be located off Raby Road, which for more than 150 years, had trailed across the hills linking the old Riley family property to Campbelltown.
Alexander Riley (1778-1833) was a merchant and pastoralist who in 1809 was granted 3000 acres on the corner of Bringelly and Cowpasture Roads. He called his estate Raby in honour of his mother, who had been Miss Margaret Raby. Apparently "Raby" had also been the name of a family property in England. He used his new Australian farm for sheep breeding, and also introduced the first cashmere goats into the colony.
But in 1817, Riley left his younger brother in charge and sailed back to England to direct his colonial operations from the comfort of London. From this vantage point, he arranged for Saxon merinos from Germany to be sent to the colony, where they thrived at Raby.
John Macarthur of Camden Park was jealous of Riley's success and profits, writing to his son in England that the Macarthur sheep were "far superior" to Riley sheep. Nonetheless, between 1827 and 1830, Raby flocks won every gold medal for sheep awarded by the Australian Agricultural Society at its annual shows.
For years the property name was synonymous with the surrounding area, and the original name of the Leppington School was Raby Public School.
As a suburb of Campbelltown, "Raby" began to be developed as private subdivisions in the late 1970s. In 1978, Council decided to use "airplanes of the world" as its theme to name the new streets being created.
The first land releases were located between three roads named in honour of famous fighter planes - Mustang Drive, Sopwith Avenue and Spitfire Drive.
A quick glimpse at an aircraft history book would no doubt reveal the names of dozens of other streets developed over the next decade.
Some of these would include: Mirage Avenue, Hurricane Drive, McDonnell Street, De Havilland Crescent, Zeppelin Street, Thunderbolt Drive, Boeing Crescent, Swordfish Avenue, Shuttleworth Avenue, Liberator Street, Stuka Close, and Corsair Street.
It is interesting to note some of the proposed aircraft names Council refused to use for various reasons - Vampire, Messerschmitt, Mosquito, Zero and Phantom.
By the early 1990s, most of the suburb had been completed, although a few pockets were still being released. As late as March 1992, Council was allocating additional street names such as Arrow Place and Skyfarmer Place.
Today it is one of the more prestigious suburbs, boasting picturesque streetscapes and reserves such as Manaleuka Park. This was not only the name of a farm which stood on the site in the 1970s, but was also the name of the Landcom estate that saw the creation of nearby streets.
The old path of Bunbury-Curran Creek has now been developed as Raby Sports Complex and Sunderland Reserve (the latter named after an adjoining road).
An old farm dam has been retained as Lake Burrendah Reserve, which is Aboriginal for "place of the swan". Nearby Kooringa Reserve is derived from the Koori word for "sheoak." Blain Reserve notes an old family which had lived in the area since the 1800s.
The first school in the suburb was Heathfield Public School, which was named after a local farm owned by the Blain family. The school stood in demountables to the west of the modern site of Raby shopping centre. But in 1986 this temporary school closed and the Robert Townson Public School opened instead. This was named after a local pioneer, and the Robert Townson High School opened next door in 1987.
Contrary to the romantic image conjured up by its title, Rosemeadow was not named after some nebulous paddock of wild roses. The southern suburb of Campbelltown actually honours an early settler, Thomas Rose (1772-1836), who bought Mount Gilead farm in 1818.
This extensive property was estimated at 2460 acres (984ha) in 1828, and stretched into what is now the southernmost portion of Rosemeadow.
Rose won considerable fame in the early colony for his experiments in water conservation, and in 1825 built a huge dam on his property. He also built a smaller dam near Appin Road for the use of his hard-pressed neighbours during the drought of 1829. Long hours as a baker and publican had helped secure his wealth.
But it is sometimes difficult to separate fact from romanticised fiction when reading through old newspaper reports. One article described Rose as "an educated, much travelled and aristocratic type of man" who "drove a carriage emblazoned with his crest". Not a bad image for someone who in reality had arrived in Sydney wearing the chains of a convict.
Mysterious tales were often concocted about the reason for Rose's arrival in the colony, to hide his penal past. Early Campbelltown historian, J.P. McGuanne, described him in 1920 as "the most respectable of the first free settlers".
Certainly, Rose was a man worthy of respect. He was kind, community-minded, resourceful, and always willing to "have a go". At various times he was a stockholder in the Bank of NSW, a trustee of the Sydney Public Free Grammar School, and treasurer of the Sydney Reading Room.
Always on the lookout for a good investment, Rose also joined the ill-fated Fred Fisher in a paper making venture. The memories of Rose's activities and generosity in Campbelltown continued for many years after his death.
When his daughter died in May 1929, the local press devoted most of her obituary to Rose himself, It claimed that when he built a tower mill on his farm in 1834, he gristed wheat for local farmers and only charged them half-rates for two years. His "multitudinous acts of charity for the poor of the district" were highly praised. "So beloved and respected was he, that when he drove to town people touched their hats to him," the obituary reported.
Thomas Rose Drive, between the local shopping centre and the strangely named Ambarvale High School (it is actually in Rosemeadow), pays tribute to his contributions.
But the oldest thoroughfare is without a doubt Fitzgibbon Lane. Once a simple farm track, it is now a major access road into the suburb.
The age-old name itself comes from a family connected with the area for generations. One of the best-known members was Timothy Roy Fitzgibbon (1893-1951), who was an alderman on Council for 18 years. With his wife, Mary, he lived on a dairy property called Killara - first farmed by his Irish-born grandfather, Timothy Fitzgibbon.
As a boy, Roy attended the old "Avoca Vale Public School" near Sugarloaf Hill. An expert cattle judge, he was the chief steward of the local Agricultural Society for many years, vice-president of the football club, and vice-president of the local milk zone's Dairymen's Council.
Fitzgibbon Lane once went all the way to Menangle Road, but now only a small portion adjoining Appin Road survives. It ends abruptly at Copperfield Drive, much of its old path now taken up by Rizal Park and Demetrius Road.
Although plans to create the modern suburb were drawn up in the mid-1970s, it remained farms and dams for the rest of the decade, while development occurred at Ambarvale to the north. When the Rosemeadow name was approved in 1976, cows were still grazing happily on the site.
But the creep of suburbia finally arrived with the next decade, the charge being led by the NSW Housing Commission. Landcom soon acquired portions of land and opened estates. In later years, private developers would also get involved.
Faced with the job of giving the new streets names in July 1980, the Council approved what seemed a colourful theme - characters from the plays of the "immortal bard", William Shakespeare.
Some of the more obvious results were Hamlet Crescent, Cleopatra Drive, Othello Avenue and Macbeth Way. And of course, where there is a Juliet Close there has to be a Romeo Crescent nearby. But what about the others?
Montague Place, Capulet Place, Sampson Place, Gregory Street and Balthasar Close all come from Romeo and Juliet, while the play Julius Casear inspired Julius Road, Cicero Way, Claudius Place, Brutus Way, Pindarus Way, Cassius Way and Calpurnia Way.
Donalbain, Banquo, Macduff, Seyton, Malcolm and Siward are from Macbeth, and Polonius, Horatio, Reynaldo, Marcellus, Bernardo, Fortinbras, Francisco and Ophelia grace the pages of Hamlet. The tragedy of King Lear spawned Edmund, Oswald, Regan, Cordelia and, of course, Lear.
Figures from Othello include Iago, Roderigo, Desdemona, Emilia and Bianca, while The Tempest gave us Prospero, Miranda, Ferdinand, Ceres, Caliban, Alonso and Ariel.
Anthony Drive, Eros Place, Demetrius Road, Scarus Place, Philo Close, Agrippa Street, Menus Place, Canidius Street, Charmian Place, Alexis Place, Octavia Avenue and Iras Place rose up from Anthony and Cleopatra.
The Twelfth Night is represented by Viola, Sebastian, Orsion, Olivia and Malvolio, Winter's Tale by Leontes and Dorcus, and The Merchant of Venice by Antonio, Jessica, Lorenzo and Portia.
Westminster, Willoughby, Berkley, Fitzwater, Exton, Langley and Mowbray are all from Richard II, while Bardolph, Vernon, Falstaff, Coleville, Glendower, Blunt and Archibald are from Henry IV. Midsummer Night's Dream is represented by Theseus and Lysander.
Copperfield Drive is named after the classic Dickens novel, David Copperfield, because it originates in Ambarvale, where streets recall the characters of Charles Dickens.
Ambarvale High School was first established as a temporary facility on the present site of Thomas Reddall High School in Ambarvale. But in early 1989 it was relocated to a permanent location in Rosemeadow - but kept its old name to retain continuity for students. Rosemeadow Public School began classes in 1986.
But the oldest school in the suburb is John Therry Catholic High School, opened in 1980 and named after the pioneering priest, Father John Joseph Therry (1790-1864). The Mary Brooksbank Special School (1987) was named after a local settler and diarist.
Haydon Park honours Barkley Haydon, who was a gardener at the old Campbelltown State Nursery and Royal Botanic Garden in Sydney.
Rizal Park gets its title from a Filipino patriot, Dr Jose Rizal (1861-96). This was on the request of the Philippine-Australian Friendship Association which helps maintain the reserve. Rizal was a writer, scholar and scientist who encouraged non-violent reform and independence for his homeland. But accused of sedition, he was shot by a Spanish firing squad.
Sadleir is an established residential area. Sadleir is bounded by Mannix Park in the north, Sadleir Avenue in the east, Cabramatta Creek in the south and Heckenberg Avenue in the west. Sadleir is named after Richard Sadleir, the first Mayor of Liverpool.
Development of the area dates primarily from the 1960s, as part of the Green Valley public housing area. The population has declined slightly since the early 1990s, a result of little change in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size.
Major features of the area include Eureka Creek Reserve and one school.
Warwick Farm is located 30 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Liverpool and is part of the South-western Sydney region.
Warwick Farm railway station is on the South railway line of the City Rail network. The Hume Highway is the main arterial road through the suburb. The William Long Bridge crosses the Georges River to Chipping Norton.
Warwick Farm Racecourse sits on the western shore of the Georges River. A large replica of the Sydney Harbour Bridge sits outside the Peter Warren car yard, on the Hume Highway.
Wattle Grove is a recent residential area. Wattle
Grove is bounded by the South Western Motorway in the north, Derna Road in the east, the railway line in the south and Anzac Creek in the west.
Development of the area dates primarily from the early 1990s, on what was part of the Holsworthy Military Reserve. Rapid growth took place between 1991 and 1996, with growth slowing from 1996. The population declined marginally between 2001 and 2006, a result of stability in dwelling stock and a decline in average household size. Major features of the area include Village Plaza Shopping Centre, The Lake and one school.
West Hoxton is a recent residential area. West Hoxton is bounded by a line above McIver Avenue in the north, Cowpasture Road in the east, Bringelly Road in the south and the Sydney Water Supply Channel in the west. West Hoxton includes the southern part of the suburb of Middleton Grange.
Development of the area dates primarily from the late 1990s. Rapid growth took place between 1996 and 2001, with the population increasing more than sixfold. Rapid growth continued between 2001 and 2006.
Major features of the area include Lake Francis and a number of schools.